Displaying 1-666 of 666 results.

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Sara Rosengren, Stockholm School of Economics.
Session 1.1.1
Emotions
1

The Smile Appeal: Emotional Contagion from Smiling Models Affects Consumer Attitudes for Advertisements and Product Packaging Positively

Hanna Berg, Stockholm School of Economics
Magnus Söderlund, Stockholm School of Economics
Annika Lindström, Stockholm School of Economics



Smiling faces appear frequently in marketing communications, but so far they have received scant attention from marketing researchers. This study assesses the effects of including pictures of smiling faces in visual marketing in terms of emotional contagion and attitudes for the marketing stimuli. Two experiments were conducted, one with advertisement stimuli and one with product packaging stimuli. One main finding is that images with smiling human models produced more positive attitudes toward the marketing stimuli than images with non-smiling models. Mediation analysis also indicated that emotional contagion mediated the effects on attitudes.

Emotional Contagion,Advertising,Product Packaging Design

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Sara Rosengren, Stockholm School of Economics.
Session 1.1.1
Emotions
2

Message Strategies of Award-Winning Marketing Communications in Europe

Christos Livas, University of Piraeus
Markos Tsogas, University of Piraeus
Ioannis Lionis, University of Piraeus



This paper aims to contribute to existing knowledge regarding characteristics of successful marketing communications and assess the relationship between message strategy and marketing communication type. A content analysis of 161 award-winning campaign briefs submitted to the Integrated Marketing Communications European Awards from 2006 to 2009, indicated the prevalence of transformational message strategies. Results also show that depending on the marketing communication type employed, award-winning campaigns utilized diverse message strategies. Overall, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the nature of successful communication messages in Europe and provide valuable directions for practitioners, as regards the design and coordination of effective integrated marketing communication programs.

Communications,Message,Effectiveness

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Sara Rosengren, Stockholm School of Economics.
Session 1.1.1
Emotions
3

Scanning Customers’ Emotions while Watching Advertising: Application of Real-Time Automated Facial Recognition in Market Research.

Niels Neudecker, GfK SE
Martin Einhorn, Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG
Sven Henkel, University St. Gallen
Harald Schuster, GfK SE
Julia Sauermann, Porsche AG, Germany
Michael Loeffler, Porsche AG, Germany

Measuring a person’s emotional state is one of the most challenging undertakings in marketing. Using automated systems for scanning respondent’s facial expressions is a novel approach to this challenge. Based on a short overview of existing measures we introduce a new approach for real-time automated facial recognition, which is tested in two studies. Study 1 validates our measurement system under laboratory conditions. Study 2 was applied within an international TV commercial pretest in China, US and Germany. Our results underline the validity and functionality of our approach and show that the level of valence is critical to analysis quality.

Facial Coding,Emotions,Tv Commercials

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Sara Rosengren, Stockholm School of Economics.
Session 1.1.1
Emotions
4

Political Advertising in the Shadow of the Financial Crisis: the Use of Emotional Appeals in the Greek 2012 Election Campaign

Eirini Tsichla, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Lia-Paschalia Spyridou, University of Cyprus
Christina Boutsouki, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki



As an illustrative example of a country facing the financial crisis, the study employs Greece as a case in point for the examination of emotional advertising messages aired during the 2012 election campaign. A sample of 88 television advertisements was content analysed, highlighting the widespread use of emotional advertising and the elicitation of negative emotions in particular, in an effort of the political parties to get the limelight of media and to attract the electorates’ attention. Variations of the emotional strategies employed were also recorded. In particular, pro memorandum parties were likely to instill fear while anti-memorandum parties preferred to evoke hope, warm heartedness and anger. Similarly, conservative parties glamorized the use of fear and pride appeals as opposed to liberal parties that promoted warm-heartedness appeals.

Political Advertising,Emotion,Political Marketing

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Lampros Gkiouzepas, Technological Ed. Inst. Thessaloniki
Session 1.1.2
Visual Aspects
1

The Influence of “Attitude Toward the Typography” in a Print Advertising Context

Jennifer Amar, University of Bretagne-Sud
Olivier Droulers, Université de Rennes 1 - IGR UMR 6211 CREM




Although the place of writing in communication remains important, surprisingly, little research has been done on the role of typography in an advertising context, especially on attitude toward the ad (Aad). Yet, the interest for research on the relation between typography and attitude toward the ad was highlighted by Childers and Jass in 2002. Our experiment conducted on a print advertisement shows that typeface characteristics influence advertising responses. This work highlights the importance of typography in advertising and enriches it with a new variable: attitude toward the typography.

Typography,Attitude Toward The Typography,Attitude Toward The Ad

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Lampros Gkiouzepas, Technological Ed. Inst. Thessaloniki
Session 1.1.2
Visual Aspects
2

Icons as Tools of Visual Persuasion in Advertising

Lampros Gkiouzepas, Technological Education Institute of Thessaloniki
Margaret Hogg, Lancaster University / Management School




Although visual rhetoric offered a promising theoretical framework for understanding how visual communication works in advertising, it has not yet provided a systematic understanding of how visual persuasion operates. One of the assumptions which might inhibit the further development of visual rhetoric is the argument that images do not imitate reality. Our counter-argument is that resemblance between visual signs and reality is essential for leveraging consumers’ experiences. The findings of two experiments suggest that individuals not only incorporate their knowledge of the physical world into their interpretation of ad images, but also that the principles of categorisation of physical objects can be used to understand how persuasion works in visual communication.

Advertising,Visuals,Metaphors

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Lampros Gkiouzepas, Technological Ed. Inst. Thessaloniki
Session 1.1.2
Visual Aspects
3

Evolutionary versus Revolutionary Brand Logo Change: Higher Degrees of Brand Logo Change Hurt Brand Recognition for Highly Brand Conscious Consumers

Bo Van Grinsven, VU University Amsterdam
Enny Das, Radboud University Nijmegen




Two experiments tested the effects of different degrees of brand logo change on brand recognition. Experiment 1 (N=120) tested effects of degree of logo change (original vs. small vs. substantial change). Experiment 2 (N = 148) used a 3 (degree of change: original vs. small vs. substantial change) x 2 (Exposure: 1 vs. 3) between subjects design with brand consciousness as continuous moderator. Results showed that decreases in brand recognition following substantial logo changes were restored after three exposures. Highly brand conscious consumers may need special attention because logo change hurts brand recognition in particular among this group.

Brand Logos,Exposure,Brand Consciousness

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Lampros Gkiouzepas, Technological Ed. Inst. Thessaloniki
Session 1.1.2
Visual Aspects
4

Could Face Presence in Print Ads Influence Memorization?

Safaa Adil, University of Rennes 1
Olivier Droulers, UNIVERSITY of Rennes 1




A large amount of literature in psychology and neurosciences demonstrates that attention is preferentially and automatically oriented toward faces. This stimulus is fixed longer and processed faster compared to other classes of visual stimuli (objects). This article investigates if and how face presence in print ads affects the memorization of ads content. A folder test procedure was used where ads, with or without faces, were inserted. Findings suggest that face presence in ads image positively influences ads memorization. Implications for advertising conception and promotion campaigns are discussed.

Face,Ads,Memorization

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Dan Alex Petrovici, University of Kent
Session 1.1.3
Word of Mouth
1

On the Persuasiveness of Opinions versus Advice: an Information Diagnosticity Perspective

Matteo De Angelis, Luiss University
Andrea Bonezzi, New York University
Derek D. Rucker, Northwestern University
Alessandro M. Peluso, University of Salento


Consumers can share information about products in the form of either opinions—whereby they merely communicate whether they like or dislike a product—or advice—whereby they also provide explicit suggestions as to how others should behave. Whether opinions are more influential on consumer behavior than advice or vice versa appears unknown. In three experiments, the authors investigate the role of the perceived diagnosticity of the information as a factor explaining when advice is more or less influential than opinions by exploring the effect of two variables, product category and communicator-receiver relationship closeness, that affect how diagnostic information is perceived.

Advice,Opinion,Information Diagnosticity

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Dan Alex Petrovici, University of Kent
Session 1.1.3
Word of Mouth
2

The Effect of Blurbs on Consumers’ Response

Marco Visentin, University of Bologna
Chiara Orsingher, University of Bologna




Blurbs on books have become a common advertising practice in bookstores, but their effectiveness is still questioned by the practice and no evidence can be found in the literature. As an advertisement stimulus, it is expected to affect cognitive and affective responses. Nevertheless, the blurb is aimed at capturing the attention of consumers when they visit a bookstore, so it is also supposed to foster sales. Based on these premises, our study presents an experiment aimed at evaluating the causal relationship between the presence of a blurb on books and the cognitive, affective and behavioral response of consumers.

Blurbs,Consumer’s Response,Experiment

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Dan Alex Petrovici, University of Kent
Session 1.1.3
Word of Mouth
4

Positive and Negative e-WoM of Hedonic and Utilitarian Consumption

Hung-Pin Shih, Hsuan Chuang University
Liang-Chih Yang, Hsuan Chuang University
Jian-Shiun Hu, Hsuan Chuang University
Cheng-Hsiung Chiang, Hsuan Chuang University


Positive (negative) electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) is likely (unlikely) to motivate consumers’ purchase decisions. Negative information cues are stronger than positive information cues to affect consumers’ judgments and purchase decisions. However, the literature has not addressed whether the negativity bias can apply to predict the positive-to-negative eWOM of hedonic and utilitarian consumption. We use big data tool (OpView) to analyze e-WOM of hedonic (flight travelling) and utilitarian (Carrefour mall) consumption that posted on forums, blogs, twitter, and facebook. From the survey results, we conclude that a positivity bias is better to explain the review of hedonic consumption, whereas a negativity bias is appropriate to explain the review of utilitarian consumption.

Electronic Word-Of-Mouth,Hedonic,Utilitarian

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Tina Tessitore, IESEG School of Management
Session 1.1.4
Persuasion Knowledge/Suspicion
1

The Effects of Perceived Health Claim Certainty, Manipulation Inferences and Issue Involvement on Food-Related Purchase Intentions

Fanny Dobrenova, Klagenfurt University
Ralf Terlutter, Alpen-Adria Univertsity of Klagenfurt
Sonja Grabner-Kräuter, Alpen-Adria Univertsity of Klagenfurt



This paper examines the effects of consumer perceptions about the level of health claim support, inferences of advertisers’ manipulative intent (IMI) and consumer health issue involvement on purchase intentions related to foods bearing health claims. Findings suggest that higher perceived levels of claim support positively affect purchase intentions. IMI has a negative effect on purchase intention ratings. Issue involvement has a significant interaction term with perceived level of claim support, which negatively effects purchase intentions. If issue involvement is high, higher perceived levels of claim support negatively affect purchase intention ratings.

Health Claims On Food,Perceived Level Of Health Claim Support,Purchase Intentions

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Tina Tessitore, IESEG School of Management
Session 1.1.4
Persuasion Knowledge/Suspicion
2

Suspicion is a Heavy Armor! A Mindset Account for the Carryover Effects of Suspicion on Unrelated Persuasion Attempts

Tina Tessitore, IESEG School of Management
Maggie Geuens, Ghent University
Mario Pandelaere, Ghent University
Elizabeth Cowley, University of Sydney


By conceptualizing suspicion as a mindset, this research investigates the carryover effects of suspicion on the processing of subsequent unrelated persuasion attempts. The first two studies provide evidence for this mindset account by demonstrating its carryover effects on subsequent unrelated judgments and advertisements. A third study shows that unresolved suspicion limits cognitive capacity in subsequent unrelated situations. A fourth study draws on these previous results to demonstrate counterintuitive consequences of suspicion for product placements. This research has practical implications for advertisements or product placements appearing after suspicious television/movie scenes.

Suspicion,Persuasion,Advertising

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Tina Tessitore, IESEG School of Management
Session 1.1.4
Persuasion Knowledge/Suspicion
3

Time Pressure and Time Planning in Explaining Advertising Avoidance Behavior

Jose I. Rojas-Mendez, Carleton University
Gary Davies, Manchester Business School




In this study two factors, central to time allocation theory, are identified as relevant to an understanding of television advertising avoidance behaviour: time pressure and time planning. Drawing from Reactance theory, their significance in predicting two different types of avoidance, mechanical and behavioural, are examined empirically. As attitudes to time allocation are culturally and contextually dependent, two studies are reported, one in the United Kingdom, the other in Chile. In the former, time planning is a significant predictor of mechanical avoidance, and time pressure significantly impacts behavioural avoidance. In the latter behavioural avoidance is predicted by time planning.

Advertising Avoidance,Time Pressure,Time Planning

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Tina Tessitore, IESEG School of Management
Session 1.1.4
Persuasion Knowledge/Suspicion
4

The Impact of the ‘100% Natural Origin’ Claim on Consumers’ Perception of Fragrances

Vanessa Apaolaza, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU
Patrick Hartmann, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU
Cristina López, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU
Jose M. Barrutia, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU
Carmen Echebarria, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU

Can consumer knowledge that a scent is 100% composed of natural ingredients influence sensory perception of the fragrance? In the present study, 112 participants were asked to test and evaluate a citric fragrance. Prior to the test and the evaluation of the scent, half of the consumers were informed of the 100% natural origin of its components, while the other half were not provided with that information, even though the individuals were exposed to exactly the same perfume made from totally natural essential vegetable oils. Results found that participants gave a higher mark to the scent when they had been informed that it was completely natural in origin. This study demonstrates that information proclaiming the natural origin of substances comprising a scent may change consumers’ sensory perception of the fragrance. This finding is of great relevance for scent manufacturers and cosmetics companies, enabling them to manage such claims as tools to market their products.

Halo Effect,Claims,Perfumes

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Modelling and Marketing Analytics
Chair: Nadine Schröder, Regensburg University
Session 1.11.1
CRM and Services
1

Latent Growth Curve Analysis and Growth Mixture Models Applied to Automobile Consumers’ Satisfaction

Cristina López Caro, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU
Petr Mariel, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU




Companies are very interested in obtaining reliable indicators about Consumer Satisfaction once a product has been purchased and used. This study analyzes consumer satisfaction with 130 models of cars (individuals) observed across three consecutive periods of time and established as a global evaluation made after consumption experience with a product. The aim of this study is to observe the cumulative satisfaction trend over time by employing two different but related methodologies: Latent Growth Curve Analysis and Growth Mixture Models. These methodologies allow for different classes of cars that vary according to the growth means in a different way. The identification of these trends and classes might allow companies enhance product’s attributes and develop new marketing strategies.

Cumulative Consumer Satisfaction,Latent Growth Curve Analysis,Growth Mixture Models

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Modelling and Marketing Analytics
Chair: Nadine Schröder, Regensburg University
Session 1.11.1
CRM and Services
2

Determinants of Contract Plan Choice

Christian Schlereth, Frankfurt University
Siham El Kihal, Goethe University Frankfurt




Service providers frequently offer contract plans and bind consumers for the time of the con-tract length in return for a price discount. These contract plans differentiate between consum-ers who wish to stay flexible and those who are willing to commit to the service provider for the time of the contract length. For the right implementation of contract plans, knowledge about the determinants of consumers’ choice of contract plans is crucial. In an empirical study, we identify these determinants and use a discrete choice experiment to analyse their influence on contract plans’ choice. While factors such as convenience or expectations about future changes on the market do not have an impact at all, we find that interest, flexibility, and price discounts strongly impact consumers’ choice of contract plans and should be considered when implementing contract plans.

Pricing,Contract Plans,Discrete Choice Experiment

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Modelling and Marketing Analytics
Chair: Nadine Schröder, Regensburg University
Session 1.11.1
CRM and Services
3

Investigating The Effects Of Mailing Variables And Endogeneity On Mailing Decisions

Nadine Schröder, Regensburg University
Harald Hruschka, Regensburg University




Determining the optimal amount of mailings being sent to customers is crucial and requires the specification of relevant mailing variables. Therefore we distinguish different mailing types and sizes as contribution over the extant literature. From a modeling viewpoint we use a mixture of Dirichlet processes to deal with unobserved heterogeneity and policy functions to treat endogeneity. For a data set from a mail order company we demonstrate the occurrence of (super-) saturation effects. Finally, we investigate whether and how consideration of endogeneity leads to different managerial implications. To this end we apply dynamic optimization to determine optimal mailing strategies.

Mailings,Saturation,Optimization

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Modelling and Marketing Analytics
Chair: Bert Weijters, Ghent University
Session 1.11.2
Marketing Research Methods
1

Stimuli Ordering Effects in Survey Research

Sarah Forbes, University of Birmingham

Mark Avis, Massey University



Although the order of survey questions as a bias on survey results has gained considerable attention, there appears to have been little interest in the effects of the order of stimuli presentation. However, in a recent project, a brand personality scale was used for the evaluation of photographs of three rocks, and the presentation order of the rocks was rotated for different participants. This revealed a surprising finding, which was that there were ordering effects for the rating of the rocks and a main effect of personification on the ratings. Using participant comments on the survey process in addition to analysis findings, the paper considers some explanations for the effects, and also the implications of the research findings.

Ordering,Personification,Priming

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Modelling and Marketing Analytics
Chair: Bert Weijters, Ghent University
Session 1.11.2
Marketing Research Methods
2

Analysis The Compositional Data in Marketing Research

Adam Sagan, Cracow University of Economics





Abstract: The paper is devoted to the usage of constant sum scale in marketing research. These scales are popular in attitude and preference modeling. They belong to the broader group of ipsative and compositional data. However, the use of inappropriate statistical model may provide the strongly biased estimates and misleading interpretation of the results. Constant sum scale of means-end preferences among consumption, savings and investments are used in Dirichlet regression models based individual and clustered data.

Compositional_data,Constant_sum,Dirichlet_regression

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Modelling and Marketing Analytics
Chair: Bert Weijters, Ghent University
Session 1.11.2
Marketing Research Methods
3

Discriminant Validity Where There Should Be None: Positioning Same-Scale Items in Separated Blocks of a Questionnaire

Bert Weijters, Ghent University
Alain De Beuckelaer, Renmin University of China; Ghent University; Radboud University Nijmegen
Hans Baumgartner, Smeal College of Business, The Pennsylvania State University



In questionnaires, items can be presented in a randomized format (items from one scale are mixed with items from other scales) or in a grouped format (same-scale items are presented in the same block, which enhances discriminant validity). We demonstrate that positioning items in separate blocks of a questionnaire may indeed lead to increased discriminant validity, but this can happen even when discriminant validity should not be present. Splitting an established unidimensional scale into two arbitrary blocks of items separated by unrelated buffer items results in the emergence of two clearly identifiable but artificial factors that show discriminant validity.

Survey Methods,Confirmatory Factor Analysis,Grouping Survey Items

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Modelling and Marketing Analytics
Chair: Peter Stüttgen, Carnegie Mellon University Qatar
Session 1.11.3
Consumer Preference and Choice
1

Does Out-Of-Home Snacking Lead to Rational Addiction?

Nicolas Glady, ESSEC Business School Paris
Shantanu Mullick, ESSEC Business School




The rise in obesity is caused by a greater frequency of snacks consumed out-of-home and in-home. Out-of-home snacking assumes importance as our food rich environment lead us to indulge. We want to test if addiction to out-of-home snacking can explain the increase in consumption of snacks. Rational addiction theory implies that past purchase quantities can increase current purchases. Using reduced form models to test for addiction to food can yield spurious evidence; hence we use a dynamic structural model with addiction and inventory. We adapt Gordon and Sun (2013)’s model of addiction with endogenous consumption and stockpiling on individual-level consumption data. Our novel dataset reporting out-of-home consumption and total purchase of 18000 households for 196 weeks will allow us to conduct unique analyses.

Addiction,Dynamic Structural Model,Obesity

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Modelling and Marketing Analytics
Chair: Peter Stüttgen, Carnegie Mellon University Qatar
Session 1.11.3
Consumer Preference and Choice
2

A Finite Mixture Multinomial Probit Model for Choice Based Conjoint Analysis: A Simulation Study

Friederike Paetz, Clausthal University of Technology
Winfried J Steiner, Clausthal University of Technology




In the context of conjoint choice models the use of finite mixture models to estimate and analyze segment-specific consumer preferences is well-established. However, finite mixture models usually do not account for different pairwise similarities of alternatives, which could lead to biased estimates and predictions. In this contribution, we develop a Finite Mixture MNP model that is able to account for such dependencies, and assess its performance in terms of model fit, parameter recovery and forecasting accuracy. As a benchmark for comparison, we use the Finite Mixture IP model which belongs to the same model class but instead assumes independence between alternatives. Our results indicate a significantly better performance of the new Finite Mixture MNP model with respect to (unpenalized) model fit and parameter recovery.

Finite Mixture Models,Heterogeneity,Covariances

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Modelling and Marketing Analytics
Chair: Peter Stüttgen, Carnegie Mellon University Qatar
Session 1.11.3
Consumer Preference and Choice
3

It's Up to You! - Pay for Performance Incentive Mechanisms in Conjoint Studies

Philip Sipos, University of Hohenheim
Markus Voeth, University of Hohenheim




Incentive-aligned conjoint analysis is one of the core topics in recent preference measurement literature. Even though empirical evidence shows that incentives enhance predictive validity, incentive alignment cannot be applied to every research context, for example, new products that are not yet available. However, as conjoint analysis is often used in that context, we develop a performance-dependent incentive mechanism that is applicable regardless of the availability of real versions of the research object. The mechanism is tested for improvement in predictive validity, compared to a non-performance-based setting. The conjoint experiment is viewed as a hidden action problem that our proposed mechanism can solve. In line with theory, the results show that respondents’ reimbursement should be at least partly performance-dependent.

Conjoint-Analysis,Incentive-Alignment,Market-Research

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Modelling and Marketing Analytics
Chair: Peter Stüttgen, Carnegie Mellon University Qatar
Session 1.11.3
Consumer Preference and Choice
4

Maximizing vs. Satisficing: How Do Consumers Choose?

Peter Stüttgen, Carnegie Mellon University Qatar
Peter Boatwright, Carnegie Mellon University




This paper adds to the debate on whether consumers are in fact utility maximizers or satisficers by estimating two structurally comparable models on the same data set. Based on Stüttgen et al.’s (2012) satisficing model, we develop a structurally comparable model based on the utility maximizing framework. Both models not only model final choice, but also the information acquisition process. We find that (in the category studied) less than 10% of the participants seem to be utility maximizers. This has important implications for how effectively marketers can affect consumer choice through visual aspects of the product.

Utility-Maximization,Satisficing,Eye-Tracking

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Modelling and Marketing Analytics
Chair: Mihai Calciu, Lille 1 University / IAE Graduate Management School
Session 1.11.4
Models for Decision Support
1

Multicategory Purchase Incidence with Cross Effects and Co-Incidences

Harald Hruschka, Regensburg University





We investigate cross effects of marketing variables and cross category dependences in 25 categories using data on shopping visits of a random sample of 1500 households. We focus on differences between a full model which includes both cross category dependences and cross effects, and a restricted model which ignores cross effects. Estimation gives evidence to several high significant differences of these two models with respect to cross category dependences. A manager using the restricted model would erroneously expect an increase of average basket value due to features (display) in about 28 % (36 %) of the categories.

Marketing Cross Effects,Cross Category Dependences,Multivariate Probit

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Modelling and Marketing Analytics
Chair: Mihai Calciu, Lille 1 University / IAE Graduate Management School
Session 1.11.4
Models for Decision Support
2

Introducing Differential Evolution to Product Assortment Planning: Optimizing Variety and Service Levels of Private Labels in Retail Product Portfolios

Charalampos Saridakis, University of Leeds
Stelios Tsafarakis, Technical University of Crete, Department of Production Engineering and Management
George Baltas, Athens University of Economics & Business, Department of Marketing & Communication



Despite the longstanding recognition of the importance of product assortment planning (PAP), existing literature has failed to provide satisfactory solutions to a great deal of problems that reside in this area of research. This article introduces Differential Evolution (DE) in order to facilitate simultaneously, strategic PAP decisions, related to a) optimal variety of private label (PL) product categories, b) optimal service level of PL merchandise within a product category, and hence, c) optimal balance between PLs and National Brands (NBs) in a retailer’s product portfolio. The interrelated issue of assortment adaptation across different store formats is also considered. The proposed mechanism is illustrated through an implementation to an empirical dataset derived from a random sample of 1,928 consumers who participated in a large-scale computer assisted telephone survey.

Product Assortment Planning,Differential Evolution Algorithm,Private Label

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Modelling and Marketing Analytics
Chair: Mihai Calciu, Lille 1 University / IAE Graduate Management School
Session 1.11.4
Models for Decision Support
3

Words Fly, Documents Rest. Restfull Decision Supportive Documents For Marketing Managers. Towards a Paradigmatic Change in the Interaction Between Managers and Marketing Scientists.

Mihai Calciu, Lille 1 University / IAE Graduate Management School
Andrea Micheaux, University Lille 1




In this paper we argue that browser based web technologies and statistical calculation webs-services have attained a degree of maturity that makes it possible to embed powerful Marketing Decision Support Systems (MDSS) into static web pages. We call such pages Decision Supportive Documents (DSD). Besides solving managerial problems, DSD can be highly illustrative and play an important role in the coproduction, pedagogy and adoption of marketing models. By paraphrasing the latin proverb "Verba volant, scripta manent" in English "words fly, writings remain", we conjecture that, as documents, MDSS tend to remain or "rest" with managers and prolong interactions with marketing scientists in a paradigmatic shift towards MDSS coproduction. This coproduction is substantially facilitated and becomes literally "restfull" due to a very recent initiative to open up statistical calculations as RESTfull web services, REST meaning here REpresentational State Transfer. An application to retail chain CRM is presented.

Models,Web-Services,Decisionsupport

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Andreas Munzel, Toulouse 1 Capitole University
Session 1.12.1
Online consumer review
1

Cutting Through the Online Review Jungle – Exploring Strategic Patterns of E-WOM Handling

Sabrina Gottschalk, Freie Universität Berlin
Alexander Mafael, Freie Universität Berlin




Consumers frequently consult online reviews before making purchase decisions. In today’s online environment, however, we find an abundance of online reviews for most products and services. In turn, the quantity of online reviews available often exceeds consumers’ processing capacity. We examine how consumers work their way through the large amount of available reviews on product review sites in a pre-purchase situation. Study 1(n=13) uses a qualitative approach with verbal protocols to gain first insights of consumer strategies when using online reviews. The results serve as basis for Study 2 (n=105) in which a measurement instrument is developed to enable identification of different eWOM handling types. Results indicate that twelve dimensions of eWOM handling play a role and that individuals employ various combinations of these dimensions to process eWOM information.

Ewom,Online Consumer Reviews,Ewom Handling Strategies

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Andreas Munzel, Toulouse 1 Capitole University
Session 1.12.1
Online consumer review
2

Consumption of E-WOM: do Acquaintance and Prior Usage Experience Make the Message Fonder?

Alexander Rossmann, Reutlingen University of Applied Sciences
Kumar Rakesh Ranjan, Indian Institute of Management Bangalore
Praveen S., Indian Institute of Management Bangalore



Word of Mouth communication has gained renewed prominence with the proliferation of electronic Word of Mouth (eWoM). Both types are customer generated sources of information, which are considered more credible, empathetic, and relevant than a marketer’s communication efforts. While the generation of eWoM has received significant attention in existing research, the nomology of what causes engagement with eWoM is less developed. This research complements our current understanding by investigating the consumer-to-consumer context of two different online communities on Facebook. We examine the simultaneous effect of senders’ prior experience of products and services and the extent of their acquaintance with other members on user engagement. The results offer significant insights into community strategies in order to foster user engagement and optimize eWoM communication.

Word-Of-Mouth,Engagement,Consumption

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Andreas Munzel, Toulouse 1 Capitole University
Session 1.12.1
Online consumer review
3

Customers, Watch Out! Experimental Insights Into The Detection of Fake Online Reviews

Andreas Munzel, Toulouse 1 Capitole University





Consumers rely on experiences from other individuals expressed online when forming an attitude about a product and making purchase decisions. However, the trustworthiness of consumers’ online opinions is jeopardized through the deceptive behavior of firms in the form of fake reviews. In their interactions with strangers, the readers of online reviews derive the trustworthiness of the reviews from available cues. This research investigates consumers’ ability to identify fake reviews. Three experimental studies were conducted and included different potential detection support mechanisms. The results show that priming self-protection, as well as two of the three tested detection support mechanisms, affect the source’s trustworthiness. This research contributes to the field of online interactions by highlighting the dark sides of the rising practice of fake reviews.

Online Reviews,Deceptive Opinion Spam,Trustworthiness

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Andreas Munzel, Toulouse 1 Capitole University
Session 1.12.1
Online consumer review
4

Does Engaging With a Web Site Lead to Telling Other Users About It?

Antonio Hyder, CEU Cardenal Herrera University
Antonio C. Cuenca, University of Valencia
Enrique Bigné, University of Valencia



We propose a model that analyses the relationship between Web site engagement and electronic word of mouth (e-WoM). Three further consequences to engagement relevant for online marketers -return intention, switching intention and purchase intention- are also taken into account in the model. Data were obtained with an online data acquisition Web site specifically developed for this study, and were analysed with partial least square path modelling. Results confirm a direct positive relationship between Web engagement and e-WoM. Engagement also leads to purchase intention and non-switch behaviour when mediated with return intention. Academic and managerial implications are discussed.

Engagement,Ewom,Website

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Andre Marchand, Muenster University
Session 1.12.2
Advances in mobile marketing
1

Collecting Data Via Smartphones - Exploring Ways How to Reach Respondents

Marie Schulte, Braunschweig University of Technology





The advent and increasing popularity of smartphones open up new approaches to study people and collect primary data. While market researchers are working to develop appropriate methods for collecting data via these mobile devices, research on factors that influence the willingness to participate in such surveys as well as about ways how to increase response rates is still in its infancy. In order to start filling this research gap, qualitative interviews with market research experts have been conducted. The data analysis reveals various influence factors which refer to mobile technology aspects, the survey design as well as to the potential respondent. Based on these findings, practical starting points for increasing smartphone users’ willingness to participate in mobile data collection are highlighted.

Data Collection,Smartphones,Participation

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Andre Marchand, Muenster University
Session 1.12.2
Advances in mobile marketing
2

Shopping Via Smartphones – An Investigation on Selected Drivers and Consequents of Customers’ Perceived Enjoyment

Stefanie Sohn, Braunschweig University of Technology





Online shops accessible through smartphones present retailers with the challenge to create a shopping environment that effectively complements the conventional online shop. So far, research focuses consumer’s global willingness to shop mobile while neglecting customer’s mobile shopping experience and its determinants. Hence, this study, conducted among mobile smartphone shoppers, attempts to clarify how instrumental aspects of store appearance impact consumer’s enjoyment. The findings highlight the vital role of perceived aesthetics and confirm the impact of ease of use on enjoyment. Accordingly, enjoyment strengthens reuse and purchase intention while prior online shop contact does not moderate the investigated interrelationships.

Mobile Shopping,Smartphones,Perceived Enjoyment

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Andre Marchand, Muenster University
Session 1.12.2
Advances in mobile marketing
3

What Makes a Video Game Hit? An Empirical Investigation of Three Console Platforms

Andre Marchand, Muenster University
Thorsten Hennig-Thurau, University of Muenster




The video game industry is a branch of the entertainment sector that is of growing cultural and economic relevance. Some video games these days are now produced and marketed with budgets of more than 200m US$ and earn more than a billion US$. Nevertheless, little is known about the factors that make a video game a hit. Building on previous findings in adjacent industries such as the movie industry, the authors develop hypotheses about success factors and test them empirically with a large data set (2,429 cases from 2005 to 2011) of the video game industry.

Prediction,Entertainment,Industry

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Benjamin Lowe, Kent Business School, University of Kent.
Session 1.12.3
Online payment, loyalty and trust
1

The Impact of Recommendation Agents’ Type of Voice on Perceived Social Presence, Trust and Consumers Intentions

Emna Cherif, University of Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne
Jean-François Lemoine, University of Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne - ESSCA School of Management




This paper aims to demonstrate the influence that recommendation agent type voice may have on consumers reactions. Through experimentation, we compare the effects of human and synthetic voice on perceived social presence, recommendation agent trust and website trust. The findings suggest that the human voice is likely to provide a higher level of social presence and recommendation agent trust. The structural equation model shows that social presence has a positive effect both on recommendation agent trust and behavioral intentions. In turn, recommendation agent trust influences website trust and behavioral intentions. Finally, results show that website trust positively impacts behavioral intentions.

Recommendationagent,Voice,Trust

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Benjamin Lowe, Kent Business School, University of Kent.
Session 1.12.3
Online payment, loyalty and trust
2

Conveying Customized Nutritional Information: Willingness-To-Pay and Consumer Segments

Benjamin Lowe, University of Kent
Diogo De Souza-Monteiro, Kent Business School, University of Kent
Iain Fraser, School of Economics, University of Kent



Nutritional labels on the food we purchase are designed to combat an increase in food related diseases. However, despite being shown to offer consumers some benefits, their influence is moderated by factors such as consumer heterogeneity. Recent advances in technology might assist retailers and policy makers by providing consumers with the option to examine more customized and targeted information of greater relevance to their needs, and to assist them making better decisions. Using a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) this paper develops a model to predict consumer willingness-to-pay (WTP) for different attributes of customization and accounts for consumer heterogeneity by identifying key consumer segments.

Customization,Nutritional Information,Segments

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Benjamin Lowe, Kent Business School, University of Kent.
Session 1.12.3
Online payment, loyalty and trust
3

What Effect do Competitors’ Prices Have on Demand in Fashion E-Commerce?

David Heuer, RWTH Aachen University
Malte Brettel, RWTH Aachen University/WIN Chair - Center for Entrepreneurship




We empirically estimate price elasticities in the online fashion retailing industry and quantify individual components stemming from both the own-price as well as competitive effects. In contrast to extant literature, we examine an environment that is not as dependent on price comparison sites. We use a novel data set provided by a leading European e-commerce company and supplement it with competitors’ prices for regression analysis. We find an unexpectedly small influence of the price ranking relative to competition accounting for about 32% of the overall price elasticity. Furthermore, we discuss implications for academics and practitioners.

E-Commerce,Pricing,Competition

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Vishnu Menon Ramachandran Girija, Reykjavík University
Session 1.12.4
New perspectives in e-marketing
1

The Loop Model: Modeling Consumer Interactivity and Trust in Campaigns Coupling Simultaneous Media

Robert Davis, UNITEC Institute of Technology
Bodo Lang, University of Auckland




Based on the responses of 498 consumers, this research simulates the LOOP Model: the consumer’s experience of interactivity and trust when interacting with campaigns simultaneously coupling ubiquitous channels (e.g., smartphone) with other channels of response (e.g., internet, magazines). A CFA and SEM modeling procedure showed excellent discriminant and convergent validity and goodness of fit. All hypothesized relationships were significant. The interactive experience and purchase is optimized because reciprocity and contingency are amplified. Synchronicity and control also play a significant role. The interactive experience is significantly affected by system and vendor trust. The research implications are discussed.

Loop Model,Interactivity,Trust

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Vishnu Menon Ramachandran Girija, Reykjavík University
Session 1.12.4
New perspectives in e-marketing
2

Assessing Effects on Preference for Collaborative Learning of Millennials in the Context of Massively Multiplayer Online Games

Laura Salciuviene, Lancaster University / Management School
Kelvin Lee, National University of Singapore
Veronica Erika C. Buenaventura, Momentum Worldwide



This study explores the relationship between three independent variables (amount, social context of massively multiplayer online game play [MMOG] and motivation) and the dependent variable, preference for collaborative learning. An online survey was conducted with 492 Millennials playing World of Warcraft. The findings suggest that players who are motivated by achievement and immersion and who participate in highly social in-game activities (i.e. raids), have the highest preference for collaborative learning, while the amount of MMOG play was not linked to preference for collaborative learning. Implications for better meeting needs of future employers in a global work environment are offered.

Mmog Play,Motivation,Collaborative Learning

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Vishnu Menon Ramachandran Girija, Reykjavík University
Session 1.12.4
New perspectives in e-marketing
3

Conjoint and Eye-Tracking Experiments in Digital Marketing

Vishnu Menon Ramachandran Girija, Reykjavík University
Valdimar Sigurdsson, Reykjavik University
Hildur Einarsdottir, Reykjavik University
Gordon Foxall, Cardiff University


A conjoint and a subequent eye-tracking experiment was conducted to understand how different attributes, presented in the online environment affect consumer behavior. The first study involved assessing the motivating impact of antecedent stimuli such as price, ordering type, shipping, etc. The second study was an eye-tracking experiment where we examined both direct and indirect manipulations on total time spent on a particular social media page and monitored the fixation time on the price label. Results from the conjoint study showed that the price had the highest impact on the participant’s likelihood of an online purchase. Results from the eye-tracking experiment revealed that fixation on price was not based on the price itself but on other direct as well as indirect manipulations of the price such as the size and positioning of the label and type of model.

Digital Marketing,Eye-Tracking,Consumer Behavior Analysis

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Vishnu Menon Ramachandran Girija, Reykjavík University
Session 1.12.4
New perspectives in e-marketing
4

Influence of Facebook Advertising on Brand Recall, Recognition and Attention

Francisco Rejón-Guardia, University of Granada
Francisco J. Martínez-López, University of Granada and Open University of Catalonia (UOC)
Irene Esteban-Millat, Open University of Catalonia (UOC)
Juan C. Gázquez-Abad, University of Almeria (UAL)


Online advertising is based on direct-response models, and there is considerable debate over the precise way in which brands are constructed via direct-response mechanisms. Consequently, there is a need for studies that examine advertising effectiveness in terms of impact on consumer memory. In this paper we present an experiment for analysing the influence of exposure to different advertising formats and evaluating the effect of advertising pressure on brand recall in social media advertising. We conclude that the video-only format has a greater impact on brand recall than the banner-only format or the combined use of video and banner formats.

Brand Recall,Attention,Sns

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Joana César Machado, Catholic University of Portugal
Session 1.14.1
Brand Identity and Management
1

How do Brand Managers Conceptualise Brands as Complex Phenomena?

Bjoern Asmussen, Oxford Brookes University





The purpose of this research is to investigate how brand managers conceptualise brands as complex phenomena based on in-depth interviews with 20 brand managers across a range of industries and types of organisation. The results show that managers use elements of up to four interrelated key categories when conceptualising brands: meanings, manifestations, internal stakeholders, and external stakeholders. By identifying these categories and the interplay between them the paper makes an empirical contribution to improving the critical issue of concept clarity in brand management research and practice. The findings suggest that brand stakeholders, as well as the meaning and manifestation-related co-creation processes between them, need to be integrated in future brand research to be able to capture and address the full diversity and complexity of brand conceptualisations in management practice.

Brand,Management,Co-Creation

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Joana César Machado, Catholic University of Portugal
Session 1.14.1
Brand Identity and Management
2

Exploring the Relevance of Brand Identity Within a Context of Co-Creation

Catherine Da Silveira, Open University
Cláudia Simões, The Open University Business School
Carmen Lages, Nova School of Business & Economics
Sally Dibb, The Open University Business School


The co-creation perspective has led to the apparent convergence of the notions of brand and brand identity (BI), both increasingly conceptualized as process-based and consumer-driven. Such a development raises questions regarding the relevance of BI within a context of co-creation. Applying seminal theory on organizational identity formation, this theoretical paper suggests that BI encompasses both a socially constructed perspective and a social actor perspective. Under the first view, brand and BI tend to intermingle while, under the second view, BI is a distinct concept that contributes to define the brand and is recursively implicated in generating the brand process. The social actor perspective therefore gives BI continuing relevance.

Brand,Brand Identity,Co-Creation

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Joana César Machado, Catholic University of Portugal
Session 1.14.1
Brand Identity and Management
3

Brand Identity Management Effects on Employees’ Attitudes and Behaviours

Isabel Buil Carrasco, University of Saragossa
Eva Martínez, Universidad de Zaragoza
Leslie De Chernatony, Aston Business School



It is widely recognised that employees play a crucial role in services brand management. To date, empirical studies testing the relevance of brand identity management from the employees’ perspective are, however, limited. The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of brand identity management on employees’ attitudes and behaviours. The model is tested using a sample of 297 employees in the UK financial banking sector. Results indicate that effective brand identity management can increase employees’ identification with their organisations, which in turn positively influences brand citizenship behaviours, job satisfaction and positive word-of-mouth. Further, employee satisfaction enhances word-of-mouth.

Identity,Employees,Banks

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Joana César Machado, Catholic University of Portugal
Session 1.14.1
Brand Identity and Management
4

The Brand Management System: Scale Development, Reliability and Validation Across Five Business Sectors

Mathieu Dunes, Paris Dauphine University
Bernard Pras, Université Paris Dauphine UMR CNRS n°7088 and ESSEC Business School




Brand management contributions to performance are regularly questioned by CEOs. A few studies tried to assess the impact of brand management systems (BMSs) upon brand performance while there are still issues about the reliability and validity of the scale across business sectors. This study develops and tests the reliability and validity of a “grounded-in-practice” BMS scale across five business sectors: cosmetics, convenience goods, industry, bank/industry, media sectors. In particular, it shows the importance of the hierarchical dimension, largely ignored in previous research. The other key dimensions being the implementation and the brand identity and values dimension.

Brand Implementation,Brand Identity,Hierarchical Relationships

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Cláudia Simões, Open University Business School
Session 1.14.2
Perspectives on Brand Equity
1

Examining the Impact of Brand Equity on Customer Equity

Abas Mirzaei, MacquarIE University
David Gray, MacquarIE University
Chris Baumann, MacquarIE University
Steven D'Alessandro, Charles Sturt University
Lester W Johnson, Melbourne Business School

In this study applying two new macro measures of brand equity and customer equity which are objective, and based on publicly available data, we study the impact of brand equity on customer equity quantitatively. Additionally we capture the impact of advertising spending as a main marketing action on customer equity directly and indirectly via brand equity. As a longitudinal study, we estimate and examine the model parameters over a period of 11 years from 2002 to 2012 to capture the pre and post GFC. We apply our model into four industries in service and product industries including airline, banking, fast food, and department store in the US market. The result show that brand equity is positively associated to customer equity and on average one unit change in brand equity can be resulted in up to 0.40 unit change in customer equity. Moreover brand equity can improve the advertising impact on customer equity. Finally it was found that brand equity can considerably explain the variation in brand value from %8 in fast food industry to %20 in banking and department store.

Brand Equity,Customer Equity,Adstock

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Cláudia Simões, Open University Business School
Session 1.14.2
Perspectives on Brand Equity
2

Examining the Relationships Between Integrated Marketing Communications and Brand Equity Dimensions. The Effect of Culture in the Italian Hotel Context

Alejandro Molla, University of Valencia
Seric Maja, University of Valencia
Gil Irene, University of Valencia



Integration of marketing communications has taken on a new imperative and urgency in recent years. One of the most important goals of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) is to effectively generate and maintain brand equity through encouragement of brand relationships with the customers. In addition, culture is another aspect that should not remain neglected when creating marketing strategies. This work addresses all these issues by providing empirical evidence in a specific context, i.e. Italian hotel industry. While positive and significant relationships between IMC and brand equity dimensions are found, customer national culture does not exert a significant impact on these relationships.

Imc,Brand,Culture

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Cláudia Simões, Open University Business School
Session 1.14.2
Perspectives on Brand Equity
3

Does Brand Loyalty Decline? Investigating Brand Loyalty Evolution and the Role of Product Category Characteristics

Polymeros Chrysochou, Aarhus University
Gauthier Castéran, Centre de Recherche en Management (CRM-EAC CNRS 5032), IAE Toulouse
Lars Meyer-Waarden, University Toulouse 1, CRM CNRS& EM Strasbourg Business School, HuManiS



The ultimate goal of marketers is to achieve high loyalty toward their brands. However, there is a common belief that brand loyalty declines over time. In this paper we offer insight into this area by examining the evolution of brand loyalty and the reasons that lead to this (possible) decrease. We use purchase data from the GfK panel in Denmark and analyze loyalty evolution for 55 packaged good product categories over a period of six years (2006-2011). We show that on an aggregate level, brand loyalty has not evolved. However, we observe that evolution is product category specific with some product categories showing an increase as well. We further explore the role of certain product category characteristics, such as number of brands and SKUs, private labels, and consumers’ repertoire size on influencing brand loyalty evolution.

Brand Loyalty,Private Label And National Brands,Dirichlet Model

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Henrik Sattler, University of Hamburg
Session 1.14.3
Brand Visuals
1

Children’s Brand Logo Preference: A Phonetic Symbolism Perspective

Stacey Baxter, The University of Newcastle
Tina Lowrey, HEC Paris




Brand logos play a particularly important role for child consumers. This study investigates children’s preference for inventive brand logos manipulated using phonetic symbolism principles. Using an experimental design, we demonstrate that children prefer brand logos that connote physical product attributes (e.g., size). Age differences were also observed which could be attributable to developmental stages. This research shows that when selecting an inventive brand logo, consideration could be given to the relation between the shape of the image and product characteristics. We believe that our findings are of importance to marketers as they consider different approaches to designing brand logos.

Phonetic Symbolism,Children,Logo

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Henrik Sattler, University of Hamburg
Session 1.14.3
Brand Visuals
2

Logo Design: Examining Consumer Response to Figurativeness Across Cultures

Joana César Machado, Catholic University of Portugal
Leonor Vacas-De-Carvalho, Evora University
Anna Torres, Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Michel Van De Velden, Erasmus University
Patrício Costa, School of Health Science, Minho University

Literature concerned with logo strategy suggests that the aesthetic appeal of brand logo significantly influences consumer reactions. The main purpose of this research is to study the influence of the different categories of figurative logo designs on consumer response. Through two studies in three countries, this research sheds light on consumer logo preferences, by investigating the psychological properties of the figurativeness of logo design. Results showed that figurativeness is an essential design element that significantly influences affective responses. Moreover, results suggest that natural designs are clearly preferred, and that the appeal of the different categories of figurative designs seems to be universal.

Brand Logo Design,Consumer Response,National Cultures

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Henrik Sattler, University of Hamburg
Session 1.14.3
Brand Visuals
3

Multidimensional Scaling of Visual Design: An Objective Approach of Determining Similarities

Jan Landwehr, Goethe University
Daniel Wentzel, RWTH Aachen University




Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a popular technique for the purpose of positioning a product/brand in the competitive space. While MDS has the advantage of transforming complex data into a two-dimensional space, it also has several shortcomings. In the present research, these shortcomings are addressed in one particular field of application, namely product design. In particular, we develop a novel way of measuring the similarities between different product designs. Moreover, this approach is based on a theoretically grounded approach that allows us to make specific predictions about the perceptual space and is validated through an empirical study in the automotive sector.

Mds,Aesthetics,Design

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Rafael Bravo, University of Zaragoza
Session 1.14.4
Brand Image
1

Choice-Based, Brand-Anchored Conjoint (CBAC): A New Method for Measuring Brand Image

Henrik Sattler, Hamburg University
Oliver Schnittka, University of Southern Denmark
Mario Farsky, University of Hamburg



The article introduces choice-based, brand-anchored conjoint (CBAC) analysis as a new measurement technique to assess brand image, based on an approach introduced by Louviere and Johnson (1990), in which brands serve as the levels for any attribute. An empirical study tests the validity of the new method compared with (1) Louviere and Johnson’s approach and (2) a method commonly used for commercial applications of brand image measurement (i. e., a direct attribute ratings method). The results indicate superior validity scores for CBAC.

Brand Image Measurement,Brand Anchored Conjoint,Choice-Based Conjoint

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Rafael Bravo, University of Zaragoza
Session 1.14.4
Brand Image
2

Branding in Interactive Media: Engagement Platforms and Their Influence on Customer Engagement and Brand Image

Lorena Blasco-Arcas, University of Saragossa
Blanca Hernandez-Ortega, University of Zaragoza
Julio Jimenez-Martínez, University of Zaragoza



Branding in digital worlds has become a critical issue and has shifted from a firm-focused management to a customer-focused one. This is especially relevant in virtual engagement platforms, which are designed to promote customers’ value-creating activities. This research aims to explore whether the active role of customers in engagement platforms (EPs) influences brand image and customers’ purchase behavior through their engagement. Building on the stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) framework, we also explore the role of emotions as the drivers of the customer perceptions in these platforms. SEM analyses are used to test the hypothesized relationships. Our results corroborate that, during the interaction with the platform, customers experience emotions that influence their engagement. Brand image mediates the effects of emotions and customer engagement on his/her purchase behavior.

Brand Image,Customer Engagement,Emotions

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Rafael Bravo, University of Zaragoza
Session 1.14.4
Brand Image
3

The Impact of Selected Image Dimensions of Flagship Stores on Consumer’s Brand Associations

Daniel Keßler, Saarland University
Benjamin Ney, Saarland University
Joachim Zentes, Saarland University



As a part of a company’s marketing-mix, flagship stores play a major role in attracting consumers emotionally and strengthening their brand loyalty. However, few studies have investigated the direct influence of flagship store image dimension on brand equity. Drawing on data from flagship store visitors (n = 110) of a German domestic appliances manufacturer, we analyze the antecedent and consequences of brand equity within the context of a multisensory brand experience. We show that the “infotainment” aspect, as well as the location and the visual appearance of a flagship store, lead to higher brand loyalty.

Flagship,Store Image,Brand Equity

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Relationship Marketing
Chair: Till Haumann, Ruhr University Bochum
Session 1.15.1
Customer and Brand Loyalty
1

What Drives Customers’ Loyalty and Willingness to Pay Over Time: A Comparative Study of the Long-Term Effects of Customer Satisfaction and Customer–Company Identification

Till Haumann, Ruhr University Bochum
Benjamin Quaiser, FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie & Management Berlin
Jan Wieseke, Ruhr University Bochum
Mario Rese, Ruhr University Bochum & ESMT Berlin


Previous research has identified customer satisfaction (CS) and customer–company identification (CCI) as two of the most important concepts in relationship marketing. Despite their proclaimed importance, comparative research on their long-term effectiveness is surprisingly scarce. This study makes a first attempt to address this research void and offers a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of CS and CCI in driving important customer outcomes over time. Latent growth analyses of rich longitudinal data from customers over nine measurement points spanning 43 weeks (n = 6930) show that CS and CCI have positive initial effects on customers’ loyalty and willingness to pay (WTP), but differ in their ability to maintain these positive effects over time. While the positive effects of CS decrease more rapidly, the effects of CCI are significantly more persistent.

Customer Satisfaction,Customer–company Identification,Longitudinal Analysis

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Relationship Marketing
Chair: Till Haumann, Ruhr University Bochum
Session 1.15.1
Customer and Brand Loyalty
2

Brand Love: A Unitary or Multiplex Phenomenon?

Jochen Kühn, University of Wuppertal
Tobias Langner, University of Wuppertal
Alexander Fischer, University of Wuppertal



Brand love can be considered as the most intensive consumer brand relationship. It has become a hot topic in research as well as in marketing practice. Surprisingly, the fundamental question whether brand love is a unitary or multiplex phenomenon has not been answered yet. To address this question, we conducted one qualitative and two quantitative studies. Building on Schwartz’s universal value theory, we developed a typology of different brand love relationships. Six distinct brand love types were identified: self-esteem enhancing brand love, hedonic brand love, inner-harmony-creating brand love, self-determined brand love, performance-boosting brand love, and preserving brand love.

Brand Love,Typology,Values

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Relationship Marketing
Chair: Till Haumann, Ruhr University Bochum
Session 1.15.1
Customer and Brand Loyalty
3

Is Brand Loyalty Decline a Buzz-Word or an Empirical Fact? A Longitudinal Analysis of Repeat Purchase Behavior in the UK and the USA

Lars Meyer-Waarden, EM Strasbourg business School (HuManiS) & IAE School of Management Toulouse (CRM), Capitole University
John Dawes, Ehrenberg-Bass Institute University of South-Australia
Carl Driesener, Ehrenberg-Bass Institute University of South-Australia



This research examines long-term loyalty change in a wide variety of packaged good categories in the UK and USA, over time periods between six to thirteen years. The study uses φ, expressed as S, the Dirichlet category switching parameter as the loyalty indicator. The findings provide mixed evidence. Only in 7 out of 15 UK categories and 2 of 6 US categories loyalty is slightly declining. Overall, the correlation between φ and the repertoire size is highly negative indicating that when the number of brands bought increases loyalty decreases. Loyalty decline appears to be product category-specific, rather than a universal phenomenon, and furthermore appears to be a very slight and slow process. The more the number of products (SKU) increases, the less loyal consumers become as the repertoire size rises.

Longitudinal Evolution Of Brand Loyalty,Dirichlet Model,Consumer Panel Data

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Relationship Marketing
Chair: Till Haumann, Ruhr University Bochum
Session 1.15.1
Customer and Brand Loyalty
4

Why do Customer Attitudes towards Loyalty Programs Matter a lot?

Virginie Bruneau, Louvain School of Management
Pietro Zidda, Université de Namur




Recent figures show that, unless rising number of enrollments, consumers become less active and engaged with their loyalty programs (LPs). Firms tend to spend more time and money in enrollment campaigns than in managing relations with program members. As a result, customers are unaware of LP features, do not perceive the benefits and become or stay non-active. In order to build real relationships, firms should first foster favorable attitude towards their LPs. This paper aims to understand how attitudes towards LPs are formed and how they impact behaviors. The results of our qualitative study show that LP attitudes are built up from the associations consumers make about LPs and that they are likely to drive their behavior with the program and the store. By understanding the formation of attitudes towards LPs, firms might create favorable attitudes, increase active memberships and subsequently build long lasting relationships.

Loyalty,Attitudes,Qualitative

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Relationship Marketing
Chair: Hans Haans, Tilburg Univerity
Session 1.15.2
Social Media and e-Relationship
1

Multichannel versus Pure E-securities Brokers: Impact of Customers’ Assessment of Website Attributes on E-relationship

Elissar Toufaily, Laval University
Frank Pons, Université Laval




This study compared customers of multichannel securities brokers with customers of pure e-brokers in their evaluations of online website attributes and the attributes’ impacts on e-trust and e-loyalty. An online survey of 339 securities investors on the Internet was conducted. Variance analysis as well as multigroup analysis showed that online trust as well as six features of the website were evaluated more highly for multichannel broker than for pure e-brokers. Findings also showed that Website security/privacy as well as quality support contribute to online trust for both type of brokers, however quality support is the only attribute whose impact is higher for the e-broker. Interactivity, personalization and social presence contribute to online trust only among multichannel brokers. Managerial implications of the findings are discussed.

Online Relationship,Multichannel Retailer,Website Attributes

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Relationship Marketing
Chair: Hans Haans, Tilburg Univerity
Session 1.15.2
Social Media and e-Relationship
2

Social Networking Sites as means to create Customer Loyalty

Noelia Sánchez-Casado, Polytechnic University of Cartagena
Eva Tomaseti-Solano, Polytechnic University of Cartagena
Juan-Gabriel Cegarra-Navarro, Polytechnic University of Cartagena



In the last few years, Social Networking Sites (SNS) have become very useful for firms, allowing them to attract new customers and to manage the customer-brand relationships. In this context, we consider SNS as a new relationship marketing tool that can potentially improve engagement by helping the user to make his/her personal decision in an increasing range of domains. Then, as other relationship marketing tools accomplish (e.g. loyalty programs), brand pages at SNS provide relational benefits to its customers with the aim to create customer loyalty. In this study we analyze how relational benefits (utilitarian, symbolic and hedonic) perceived by customers engaged in brand pages, affect brand knowledge, brand equity and, ultimately, customer loyalty. The results of the study help managers to design their marketing strategies at SNS.

Relational Benefits,Customer Loyalty,Social Networking Sites

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Relationship Marketing
Chair: Hans Haans, Tilburg Univerity
Session 1.15.2
Social Media and e-Relationship
3

Service Adoption and Defection Decisions: Understanding the Effects of Social Influences in Consumers’ Social Networks

Irit Nitzan, Tel Aviv University
Vardit Landsman, Tel Aviv University and Erasmus University




The processes of products' adoption and defection are closely related and are likely to influence each other. We utilize social network information and information regarding customers' adoption and defection decisions of a cellular add-on, to analyze the social interplay between the two decisions. We estimate a multi-event hazard model and find that the likelihood of adoption (defection) decreases with exposure to the defection (adoption) of network neighbors. We term these effects cross-process social effects. Correspondingly, we refer to the influence of exposure to adoption (defection) on the likelihood of adoption (defection) as within-process social effects. We find that adoption decisions are influenced by cross-process social effects and by within-process social effects to a similar extent, whereas defection decisions are substantially more affected by within-process social effects than by cross-process social effects. The social effects discussed were also affected by tie strength and homophily with adopting (defecting) neighbors.

Adoption,Defection,Social Influence / Social Networks

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Relationship Marketing
Chair: Hans Haans, Tilburg Univerity
Session 1.15.2
Social Media and e-Relationship
4

The influence of the Net Promoter Score (NPS) on Actual Online Word-of-Mouth

Hans Haans, Tilburg University
Neomie Raassens, Eindhoven University of Technology




The Net Promoter Score (NPS) is a widely used measurement tool for customer loyalty. While common practice for many companies across multiple industries, academics are not convinced about the NPS method. The major concern is whether the NPS method predicts firm profitability. Against this backdrop, this research aims to provide more insights into the relationship between customers’ NPS and online word-of-mouth behavior. Results from an ordered logit model indicate that there is a significant relationship between the Net Promoter score and social media sentiment (online word-of-mouth). Based on this finding, firms are recommended to invest in better service to increase the NPS score, and in turn its profitability.

Net Promoter Score,Word-Of-Mouth,Loyalty

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Relationship Marketing
Chair: Lars Meyer-Waarden, EM Strasbourg Business School (HuManiS), CRM/CNRS Toulouse, Capitole University
Session 1.15.3
Customer Engagement and Product Search
1

Conversion Backlash? Decision Support and Hasty Action in Consumer Product Search

Radoslaw Karpienko, Vienna University of economics and business
Thomas Reutterer, Vienna University of Economics and Business




Recent studies have shown that product recommendations substantially change the consumer decision process, regardless of the quality of recommendations. Specifically, consumers inspect less alternatives, and make their stopping decision earlier than in unassisted search. In the present Study we investigate in how far such behavioral influences can affect post-purchase evaluation. We use a real-world commercial recommendation agent in an experimental study with three conditions: A baseline condition with no recommendations, a condition with 'fake' recommendations, and a condition with 'real' recommendations. Our initial findings indicate that product recommendations may bias consumer choice, and thus potentially lead to negative effects in the long run.

Recommendations,Decision,E-Commerce

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Relationship Marketing
Chair: Lars Meyer-Waarden, EM Strasbourg Business School (HuManiS), CRM/CNRS Toulouse, Capitole University
Session 1.15.3
Customer Engagement and Product Search
2

Effect of Co-production Process and Outcome on Customer Evaluative Judgments

Anne Merken, Hasselt University
Sandra Streukens, Hasselt University
Sara Leroi-Werelds, Hasselt University



Co-production has increased substantially over the years. Nonetheless, how co-production influences customer evaluations remains vague. As co-production entails customers’ active participation in the production process, the influence of the co-production process should be considered in addition to the evaluation of the outcome. Therefore, we simultaneously examine the effect of co-production process quality and outcome quality on customer evaluations. The present study shows that both process and outcome quality significantly impact satisfaction and repurchase intention, however, we fail to find an interaction effect. Thus, firms should not only focus on designing effective co-production outcomes, but also on creating an enjoyable process.

Co-Production,Process Quality,Outcome Quality

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Relationship Marketing
Chair: Lars Meyer-Waarden, EM Strasbourg Business School (HuManiS), CRM/CNRS Toulouse, Capitole University
Session 1.15.3
Customer Engagement and Product Search
3

How Trust affects the Use of Information obtained through Intra- and Extraorganizational Relationships?

Tamara Keszey, Corvinus University of Budapest





We have limited knowledge on the potential pattern similarities/differences of trust’s role that may exist in information use obtained through intra- and extra-organizational relationships. This study addresses this question by investigating how trust leads to information use. Data from 338 intra-organizational and a sub-ample of 158 interorganizational dyadic information exchange-relationships showed that trust is an important driver of the utilization of market information in both cases. Trust has no direct relationship to information use, instead has a strong indirect effect through a mediator, perceived quality of information. The effects of trust on the use of information obtained through inter- and extra-organizational dyadic relationships proved to be similar.

Trust,Managerial Use Of Market Information,Relationships

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Relationship Marketing
Chair: Lars Meyer-Waarden, EM Strasbourg Business School (HuManiS), CRM/CNRS Toulouse, Capitole University
Session 1.15.3
Customer Engagement and Product Search
4

True or False Customer Engagement Behaviour: What can we learn from Customers’ Touch point Histories?

Helle Haurum, Copenhagen Business School
Suzanne C. Beckmann, Copenhagen Business School/Department of Marketing




Customers’ engagement behaviours are considered an important source of value to the company. So far, the discussion has mainly been conceptual and focused on the company’s perspective. By adopting the customer’s perspective we investigated how customers perceive their service relationship encounters with a company, using in-depth interviews. We found the following key factors driving and explaining customers’ engagement behaviours: (1) transactions matter and inconsistent engagement behaviours are a reality, (2) mundane products and services are still highly relevant for customers, and (3) different degrees of customer experience alignment with services and products exist. Moreover, the distinction between true and false engagement behaviours we suggest indeed is relevant and we could establish their mediating capabilities.

Customer Engagement Behaviours,Customer Dominant Logic,Loyalty Discrepancy

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Relationship Marketing
Chair: Sonja Bidmon, Klagenfurt University
Session 1.15.4
Fair and Profitable Customer Relationships
1

A Contingency approach for a Profitable Complaint Management

Iguácel Melero Polo, University of Saragossa
Jesús Cambra, University of Pablo de Olavide
Iguácel Melero, University of Zaragoza
Javier Sese, University of Zaragoza


This study aims to understand whether organizational responses to customer complaints improve customer profitability. To do so, the authors propose a contingency framework in which the effectiveness of organizational responses to complaints and direct marketing in improving customer profitability is contingent upon: relationship strength and type of failure. The framework is empirically tested applying latent class techniques to longitudinal data for a sample of complaining customers. The results reveal that: (1) different complaint-handling strategies have differential effects on profitability; (2) direct marketing can both hinder and enhance the effectiveness of complaint-handling strategies; and (3) there is significant heterogeneity –four customer segments–; the effectiveness of complaint handling and direct marketing is contingent upon the strength of the relationship and the type of failure.

Customer Profitability,Complaint Handling,Relationship Strength

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Relationship Marketing
Chair: Sonja Bidmon, Klagenfurt University
Session 1.15.4
Fair and Profitable Customer Relationships
2

Fairness Quality (FQ): A Multiple-Item Scale for Assessing Firms’ Fairness

Bang Nguyen, East China University of Science and Technology
Steve Chen, Oxford Brookes University
Lyndon Simkin, Henley Business School



To encounter firms’ perceived unfair behavior, we develop a measure of fairness quality (FQ) to assess firms’ fairness. Using the means-end framework, we conceptualize, construct, and test the FQ scale over multiple stages of data collection. The final scale contains 21 items in four dimensions: transparency, associations, moderations, and process. The scale demonstrates good psychometric properties, passing all reliability and validity tests. The study extends existing research on fairness and provides marketers with a reliable instrument so that unfairness may be detected and managed systematically. To the best of our knowledge, we are first to create an FQ scale.

Fairness,Ethics,Quality

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Relationship Marketing
Chair: Sonja Bidmon, Klagenfurt University
Session 1.15.4
Fair and Profitable Customer Relationships
3

Agreeableness and Customer Satisfaction: Effects of Customer Personality on the Relationship Between Factor Level and Overall Satisfaction With Banking Services

Sonja Bidmon, Klagenfurt University





Highly satisfied, delighted customers of banking services have higher loyalty, less intention to change the bank and a higher intention to recommend it. It is well established that not all of the banking service attributes have the potential to delight customers. In fact, according to the three-factor theory of customer satisfaction, there are three factors that each affect overall customer satisfaction differently: basic, performance and excitement factors. This paper investigates how personality, especially agreeableness (high vs. low), can influence the relationship between attribute respectively factor level and overall satisfaction with banking services. The results clearly show that factor classification differs between customers high vs. low in agreeableness. The findings have implications for theory and practice.

Customer Satisfaction,Agreeableness,Three-Factor Theory

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Relationship Marketing
Chair: Sonja Bidmon, Klagenfurt University
Session 1.15.4
Fair and Profitable Customer Relationships
4

Relational Effects of Athlete Transgressions

Kate Westberg, Rmit University
Constantino Stavros, Rmit University
Bradley Wilson, Rmit University
Aaron Smith, Rmit University


Many professional sports have been challenged by incidents of inappropriate or illegal behavior perpetrated by athletes. These transgressions, and subsequent media scrutiny, can impact on the relationship between the consumer and the sport organization. This study explores consumer expectations of athletes, response to transgressions and the potential impact on the relationship quality with the sport organization. Our work adds to the relational transgression literature by examining incidents involving employees with whom consumers have an indirect relationship. Our findings indicate that depending on the dispositional and situational attributions made by consumers, these transgressions can create conflict and have negative relational consequences.

Transgressions,Sport,Relationship Marketing

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Arnaud De Bruyn, ESSEC Business School Paris
Session 1.16.1
Channel Management
1

Playing Isolation Doesn't Pay Off! - A Network Theoretical Approach to Intermediary Performance

Tobias Schlager, University of St. Gallen
Matthias Rüfenacht, University of St.Gallen / Institute of Insurance Economics




The increasing competition and the high connectivity among companies have resulted in a focus on networks, rather than on a single company. Accordingly, literature has emphasized network value as a focal construct. No studies have yet examined the value of network theory on performance outcomes. In this paper, we investigate the importance of applying a network perspective on channel members, namely on the relationship between companies and their intermediaries. We do this by means of a global survey in the financial service industry (n=538). Doing so, we enhance the understanding of the intermediaries performance.

Networks,Intermediaries,Distribution

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Arnaud De Bruyn, ESSEC Business School Paris
Session 1.16.1
Channel Management
2

Understanding the Normative Role of Industry Standards in Channel Negotiations

Arnaud De Bruyn, ESSEC Business School Paris
Gary Bolton, University of Texas - Dallas
Bill Ross, University of Connecticut



Regarding pricing policies and negotiation outcomes, industry standards play a significant role in practice, but often appear arbitrary, and are most likely suboptimal from a profit-maximizing perspective. Regardless of their shortcomings, we argue in this paper that such standards play the role of social norms, which are essential to help negotiating parties reach a profitable and sustainable agreement. Absent of social norms, the uncertainty surrounding what the other players will do are such that defensive strategies are favored, to the expense of cooperative strategies. We develop and experimentally test a game in which a manufacturer and a reseller try to reach an agreement, where we manipulate the nature of their relationship and the presence and nature of industry norms. We show that both industry norms and a stable business relationship are required to reach a cooperative solution.

Game Theory,Channel,Negotiation

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Arnaud De Bruyn, ESSEC Business School Paris
Session 1.16.1
Channel Management
3

Innovation, Internationalization, Value Chain Position, and Export Orientation in the Petroleum Subsea Industry

Jarle Aarstad, Bergen University College
Inger Beate Pettersen, Bergen University College
Stig-Erik Jakobsen, Bergen University College



We study possible drivers for export orientation in the petroleum maritime subsea industry in the Hordaland region of Western Norway. Consistent with previous research, survey data reveal that product innovation and a majority of international ownership increase the export rate. The use of instrumental variables indicates that both product innovation and international ownership are causes – and not effects – of an export orientation. Our data furthermore show that subcontractors have a lower rate of direct export than system providers. However, international ownership in particular boosts subcontractors’ export rate, probably by decreasing their market dependency on regional system providers. We address the findings’ implications for channel management.

Export,Innovation,Value Chain Position

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Arnaud De Bruyn, ESSEC Business School Paris
Session 1.16.1
Channel Management
4

Franchise Fairs: A Relevant Signal in Franchise Choice

Pilar Huerta Zavala, University of Burgos
Esther Calderon Monge, Universidad de Burgos




This study addresses how potential franchisees who are embarking on their first start-up venture choose which franchise chains they wish to enter into business with. Working within the framework of signalling theory, the study’s aim is to analyse the relationship between franchise choice, and brand, price and participation in franchise fairs. By applying panel data methodology, the analysis yields results that imply that potential franchisees prefer to garner information directly from franchise fairs, as opposed to heeding the other signals under study.

Franchising,Signals,Fairs

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Juan Carlos Gázquez-Abad, University of Almería
Session 1.16.2
Private Labels
1

Private Label Alone? Consequences of ‘Only-PL’ Assortments on Store Switching Intentions

Juan Carlos Gázquez-Abad, University of Almería
Francisco J. Martínez-López, University of Granada and Open University of Catalonia (Spain)
Irene Esteban-Millat, Open University of Catalonia (Spain)
Juan Antonio Mondéjar-Jiménez, University of Castille-La Mancha
Francisco Rejón-Guardia, University of Granada (Spain)

Brand delisting refers to the removal of all items of a single brand, leading to the unavailability of the brand within a store. Recent professional publications indicate that national brand (NB) delistings are not uncommon in food retailing. However, retail boycotts of individual brands might have negative consequences, such as reduced customer satisfaction or increased store switching behavior. This paper analyzes the consequences of a retailer delisting all or a significant number of NBs for the sake of its own brand. To do so, we have designed a controlled online experiment on a large existing consumer panel in the Spanish market owned by IRI Worldwide. Our findings suggest that offering ‘only-PL’ assortments has negative consequences because consumers are more likely to switch to another store to purchase the category. Nevertheless, retailers focused on offering ‘only-PL’ assortments should own a PL with a high-equity positioning as this will reduce the probability of consumers switching to another store

Assortment,Private Label,Delisting

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Juan Carlos Gázquez-Abad, University of Almería
Session 1.16.2
Private Labels
2

Buying Private Label Durable Products: Influence of Perceived Risk and Anticipated Satisfaction

Maria-Jose Miquel, University of Valencia
Eva Caplliure, University of Valencia
Carmen Perez, University of Valencia
Rafael Curras, University of Valencia


Based on the purchase of a plasma television, this present study analyses the influence of general satisfaction with private labels, perceived similarity, in terms of quality between the private label brand and the manufacturer brand, perceived risk associated to the purchase, and anticipated satisfaction with the purchase, on intention to purchase private label brand durables. Anticipated satisfaction with the purchase and perceived risk are not usually contemplated in the literature. Study of a sample of 434 individuals shows the influence of general satisfaction with the private label brand and perceived similarity of quality on risk dimensions and the strong influence of risk and anticipated satisfaction with the purchase on the private label brand purchase intention.

Private Label,Perceived Risk,Anticipated Satisfaction

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Juan Carlos Gázquez-Abad, University of Almería
Session 1.16.2
Private Labels
3

Adopting a Relationship Marketing Approach in Retailing Services Context in Order to Explain Consumers’ Intention to Re-purchase PLBs: A Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis Approach

Kalliopi Chatzipanagiotou, Glasgow University / Business School
Spiros Gounaris, University of Strathclyde Business School
Angelos Pantouvakis, University of Piraeus, Department of Maritime Studies



The present study aims to extend our knowledge regarding consumers’ future behaviour towards Private Label Brands (PLBs) by putting together traditionally price-related factors such as price consciousness and deal-proneness and new explanatory factors such as store image, customers’ satisfaction with PLBs, consumers’ trust in the retailer and retailer’s PLBs. In order to do so, the present study leverages the advantages of the novel Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) in order to overcome the methodological limitations of the conventional analyses and draw inferences regarding the causal ‘recipes’ underling consumers’ future intentions towards PLBs. The results of the study provide retailers and manufacturers with insights into effective ways to strategically respond to PLBs growth and performance.

Branding,Relationship Marketing,Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Frank Hälsig, HTW Saarland
Session 1.16.3
Online Stores
1

How Online Stores Confuse Shoppers: Conceptual Framework and Empirical Investigation

Marion Garaus, Vienna University





The current research theoretically develops and empirically tests a framework of the antecedents and consequences of electronic Retail Shopper Confusion. Study one uses a projective technique to investigate confusion drivers in online store environments. The identification of nine confusing online store elements provides input for an online experiment employing a writing scenario technique. Online consumers react in a confusing shopping situation with avoidance behavior (e.g., shopping cart abandonment, low repeat visiting intentions). The findings advance the understanding of the elicitation of negative feelings by online store environments and provide an explanation why shoppers react with avoidance behavior in specific online shopping situations.

Online Shopping,Confusion,Online Store Environment

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Frank Hälsig, HTW Saarland
Session 1.16.3
Online Stores
2

The influence of Web Design and Buyer Characteristics on Browsing Behaviour

Prithwiraj Nath, University of East Anglia
Sally Mckechnie, Nottingham University Business School




Although the effects of interactivity and personalisation tools on browsing experience has been the subject of previous research, the impact of variable levels of such features on buyers’ evaluations of trust, attitudes towards websites and feelings of decision satisfaction has received relatively little attention. To address this gap, this study conducts an experiment with 273 subjects to examine these relationships in the context of complex, high risk purchase situations where the seller is new to the market and buyers demonstrate variable risk preference. Findings identify a positive association between website design features and browsing outcomes, and the effectiveness of such features higher for buyers with lower risk preference.

Trust,Decision Satisfaction,Web Design

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Frank Hälsig, HTW Saarland
Session 1.16.3
Online Stores
3

Active Return Management for Online Retailer

Siham El Kihal, Goethe University
Christian Schulze, Frankfurt School of Finance & Management
Bernd Skiera, Goethe University Frankfurt/ Electronic Commerce



High product return rates and their associated costs pose major challenges to online retailers. We investigate whether online retailers always benefit from active return management by ana-lysing the potential for profit improvements in diverse product categories, then comparing the suitability of nine return management strategies for realizing that potential. The analyses rely on an extensive data set from a large online retailer, including purchases by of over 166,000 customers over a five-year period. The authors confirm that retailers should focus their return management activities on managing customers, rather than products or some combination. Even the best return management strategy will not benefit every online retailer though: Some product categories stand to experience profit improvements of up to 330% from good active return management, but others will hardly benefit.

Online Retailing,Product Returns,Return Management

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Frank Hälsig, HTW Saarland
Session 1.16.3
Online Stores
4

Is the Decision of SMEs to Establish an Online Shop Influenced by Institutional Pressure?

Matthias Schu, University of Fribourg
Dirk Morschett, University of Fribourg/Chair for International Management
Frank Haelsig, HTW Saarland
Bernhard Swoboda, University of Trier, Chair for Marketing and Retailing


The aim of this paper is to investigate factors that influence the intention of an SME to launch an online shop. A PLS model is used based on the Technology Acceptance Model and is extended with neo-institutionalist elements. Drawing on a sample of 864 SMEs from different sectors of retail and wholesale trade, 52.8 % of the variance of the inten-tion to launch an online shop is explained with the proposed model. The results indicate that the perceived usefulness and mimetic and coercive isomorphism influence the inten-tion to establish an online channel.

E-Commerce,Sme,Tam

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Sara Leroi-Werelds, Hasselt University
Session 1.16.4
Multichannel Retailing
1

A Comparison of the Antecedents of Offline, Online, and Mobile Channel Usage

Sebastian Tillmanns, Muenster University
Marcel Stafflage, Muenster University
Carolyn Hall, Muenster University



Little is known about the perception of mobile channel attributes. In this study, a comparison of channel attributes among the online, mobile, and offline channel is conducted. Channel attributes comprise the consumers’ perception of assortment quality, service quality, product price, effort, and risk across channels. Furthermore, this research controls for different product categories (search vs. experience goods). The authors find significant differences across channels with regard to the examined attributes. Products categories only reveal a significant difference across channels with regard to effort. All channel attributes prove to significantly impact consumers’ buying intention. The study provides important implications about how the different attributes should be treated across channels.

Multichannel,Mobile Marketing,Retailing

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Sara Leroi-Werelds, Hasselt University
Session 1.16.4
Multichannel Retailing
2

Online Channel Usage: Does it Create Opportunities for Share-of-Wallet Expansion or Entail a Risk of Offline Cannibalization?

Kristina Melis, KULeuven
Katia Campo, KULeuven
Els Breugelmans, KULeuven
Lien Lamey, KULeuven


Does a shift from single to multi-channel shopping affect the allocation of grocery spending across retail chains? Given the increase in operational costs associated with a multi-channel strategy, it is important for retailers to know whether consumers who start buying online will spend a larger share at the chain (expansion) or will merely shift part of their spending at the chain from offline to online (cannibalization). We model the effect of online channel usage on a consumer’s share-of-wallet and explore the underlying drivers of this effect. Preliminary results confirm that online shoppers tend to expand the chain’s share-of-wallet.

Multi-Channel,Grocery,Expansion

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Sara Leroi-Werelds, Hasselt University
Session 1.16.4
Multichannel Retailing
3

The Value of the Supermarket: a Cross-Retail Format Study of Holbrook's Typology

Kim Willems, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Sara Leroi-Werelds, Hasselt University
Gilbert Swinnen, Hasselt University



This study addresses the following two research questions: (1) Are different retail formats typically associated with different customer value types?; (2) What is the strategic role of different value types in driving customer satisfaction, repurchase intentions and word of mouth? To address these research questions, Holbrook’s (1999) value typology is used. The results demonstrate that store formats are indeed associated with characteristic value types. Furthermore, this study provides an insight into the relative importance of Holbrook’s value types in generating key evaluative judgments. The managerial relevance of these findings is mainly situated in store format specific positioning strategy advice.

Supermarkets,Customer Value,Retail Formats

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Sara Leroi-Werelds, Hasselt University
Session 1.16.4
Multichannel Retailing
4

Should Retailers Integrate Assortments Across Channels to Drive Customer Loyalty? Insights From Mediating Mechanisms and Moderating Conditions

Oliver Emrich, University of St. Gallen
Michael Paul, University of Augsburg
Thomas Rudolph, University of St.Gallen



Building on the concept of diagnosticity, this study investigates through which mechanisms and in which conditions channel assortment integration influences customer loyalty. Results of a 3 (channel structure: full, asymmetrical, none) x 3 (assortment structure: substitutive, complementary, independent) experimental study with 959 participants show that structures are regarded as diagnostic by customers, in that they infer potential benefits from these cues, which mediate the link between structures and loyalty. Whereas full integration enhances loyalty across all assortment structures, asymmetrical integration can have detrimental effects, in particular, for substitutive relations and for customers’ high on personal need for structure. Researchers and managers can use our findings to understand the effectiveness of the diverse approaches of channel integration.

Multichannel Management,Channel Assortment Integration,Diagnosticity Theory

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Francesca Dall'Olmo Riley, Kingston University
Session 1.18.1
Service Quality and Customer Value
1

Re-Examining the Influence of Service Delivery System Effectiveness on Perceived Service Quality

Giannis Kostopoulos, Leeds Metropolitan University
George Lodorfos, Leeds Metropolitan University
Achilleas Boukis, University of Sussex



This article focuses on the effectiveness of the Service Delivery System (SDS) and re-examines its influence on customers’ perceived service quality. In this study, the influence of SDS effectiveness’ most important dimensions (front line employees’ role performance, their adaptability to individual customer needs, the effectiveness of the coordination and the effectiveness of the process’ control) on perceived service quality is tested, following a hierarchical approach. The results confirm the positive influence of three variables on perceived service quality (role performance, effectiveness of coordination and effectiveness of process’ control). On the contrary, the influence of employees’ adaptability was not found significant.

Service,System,Quality

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Francesca Dall'Olmo Riley, Kingston University
Session 1.18.1
Service Quality and Customer Value
2

Exploring Effects of Personal Values on Consumer Evaluation of Service Quality: An Empirical Study

Angelos Pantouvakis, University of Piraeus
Spiros Gounaris, University of Strathclyde
Kalliopi Chatzipanagiotou, University of Glasgow



This research examines the effects of personal values measured by Schwartz Value System on the five dimensions of service quality as introduced by SERVQUAL in an attempt to provide a deeper understanding of how and why customers judge service quality. Data from 1500 mobile phone users provide evidence that customers may be grouped in 4 clusters according to their values and that those clusters clearly moderate the importance of SERVQUAL dimensions on assessing overall service experience. Service firms have to move beyond service attributes and incorporate their customers’ values to form an excellent experience.

Servqual,Schwartz,Values

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Francesca Dall'Olmo Riley, Kingston University
Session 1.18.1
Service Quality and Customer Value
3

Helping Adolescents when Time is of the Essence

Willemijn Van Dolen, University of Amsterdam
Charles Weinberg, Sauder School of Business
Leiming Ma, University of Amsterdam Business School



The authors investigate how duration of a chat conversation impact adolescents’ perceptions of service quality of a child helpline and test whether this impact varies depending upon the seriousness of the issues discussed. The study reveals that duration of the chat positively influences the perceived service quality, but only for adolescents chatting about very serious topics. Furthermore, the study shows that satisfaction with a service encounter can positively influence the well-being of adolescents and their willingness to recommend the service to peers.

Child Helpline,Duration,Well-Being

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Cleopatra Veloutsou, University of Glasgow
Session 1.18.2
Service Branding
1

Towards a Re-Conceptualisation and Measurement of Services Brand Identity

Vandana Pareek, The University of Edinburgh
Tina Harrison, The University of Edinburgh
Dahlia El-Manstrly, The University of Edinburgh



The paper focuses on conceptualizing and measuring brand identity in services. We develop a valid and reliable scale to measure services brand identity. The lack of a consumer-based conceptualisation and measure of brand identity is concerning, especially in the context of a new service-dominant logic that regards consumers as “co-creators of value”. We explore and critically examine customers’ understandings of brand identity and refine brand identity as a co-created construct. We then outline the procedures used to develop and test an initial scale that measures this construct. The scale has the potential to be of use in assessing the relationship between brand identity and other branding and consumer behaviour constructs (such as brand loyalty and trust), thus enabling the impact of brand identity to be established.

Brand,Identity,Services

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Cleopatra Veloutsou, University of Glasgow
Session 1.18.2
Service Branding
2

Brands as Socialising Agents

Cleopatra Veloutsou, Glasgow University / Business School
Mariza Arvaniti, University of Glasgow




The paper focuses on the growing aspect of consumer-brand communities in the online context and the manner that the engagement of individuals in brand communities can actually support the broadening of the social interaction of individuals outside the online brand community and the brand related context. In the context an on line service, on line strategy games, and using data collected from 384 gamers, it suggests that the relationship that consumers have with the brand and their need to socialise can predict their participation in the online community (community engagement and community identification), while their participation in the on line community, and in particular community identification, can predict their willingness to develop social ties with the other members of the on line community outside the on line environment and the brand related context.

On Line Games,Brand Communities,Brand Community Participation

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Cleopatra Veloutsou, University of Glasgow
Session 1.18.2
Service Branding
3

Experiential Marketing in an Entertainment Service: Event-Brand Transfer

Natalia Vila, University of Valencia
Ines Kuster-Boluda, University of Valencia
Mª Carmen Rodriguez-Molina, University of Valencia
Asuncion Hernandez-Fernandez, University of Valencia
Lisa Scribner, University of North Carolina Wilmington

The main aim of this research is to evaluate the effects that experiencing an event has on experience with the promoting brand. The study analysed the musical event MTV Winter Festival, considering the opinion of 127 attendees to discover the impact of experiencing the MTV entertainment television channel event in three areas: improved brand experience, improved brand personality and increased brand reputation. Regarding event experience’s antecedents, “immersion” has been identified as the most important one, and “brand experience” as the most important effect. In addition, it has been found that brand experience has a positive impact on exciting brand personality and exciting brand personality in turn on brand reputation.

Experience,Brand,Event

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Ana Casado-Díaz, University of Alicante
Session 1.18.3
Service Delivery and Recovery Strategies
1

Do Organizational Policies Matter? The Impact of Service Guarantee on Customer Perceptions of Recovery Fairness

Benedetta Crisafulli, Kingston University / Kingston Business School
Jaywant Singh, Kingston University
Francesca Dall'Olmo Riley, Kingston University



Delivering fair service recovery is crucial to restoring customer satisfaction and repatronage. This study contends that organizational policies impact recovery fairness perceptions. Underpinned by signaling and justice theories, the study examines the influence of service guarantees on customer perceptions of recovery fairness. Given that businesses extensively use service guarantees, knowledge on perceptions of fairness towards such policies is relevant to designing effective guarantees. Employing a scenario-based experiment, this study shows that fairness varies according to the type of guarantee payout. The pledge for monetary compensation has differential impact on fairness perceptions, discount offers lower fairness and increase negative motive attributions. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

Market Signaling,Service Failure And Recovery,Perceived Justice

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Ana Casado-Díaz, University of Alicante
Session 1.18.3
Service Delivery and Recovery Strategies
2

Do Mystery Callers really Represent Customers?

Janny C. Hoekstra, University of Groningen
Annette Ammeraal, University of Groningen, Faculty of Economics and Business, Dept of Marketing
Peter S.H. Leeflang, University of Groningen, Faculty of Economics and Business, Dept of Marketing; Aston Business School.



Mystery calling is a specific form of mystery shopping that is often applied for evaluating customer contact services. Using data from both customers and mystery callers (MCs), we study the validity of MC data for evaluating customer-related performance measures. Controlling for characteristics of the call, we find no bias in MC’s evaluations of satisfaction and gratitude, and less positive word of mouth. Furthermore, we find that MC’s evaluations are more positive if s/he is a customer and in case of longer calls. More experienced MCs evaluate less positive. We recommend regular refreshment of the composition of the group of MCs.

Mystery Calling,Data Validity,Customer Contact Center

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Ana Casado-Díaz, University of Alicante
Session 1.18.3
Service Delivery and Recovery Strategies
3

What Goes around Comes around: The Impact of Employee Empathy on Service Recovery Performances

Christina Jerger, Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt
Jens Hogreve, Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt




This research compares the impact of employee service recovery strategies with focus on affective (i.e., empathic concern) and cognitive empathy (i.e., perspective-taking) on customers’ emotional and behavioral recovery responses over three studies. Multiple regression analyses show employee empathic concern as unique predictor of customer recovery responses, independent from strategies based on cognitive empathy. We confirm empathic concern to strongly affect service recovery performances, thereafter we suggest service firms to develop an emotional path of recovering additional to their behavioral one which can reduce customer negative responses to service failures. The importance of affective recovering and further research issues are discussed.

Service Recovery,Affective Empathy,Cognitive Empathy

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Sven Mikolon, Ruhr University Bochum
Session 1.18.4
Service Failures and Customer Satisfaction
1

Don´t Try Harder: Using Customer Inoculation to Build Resistance against Service Failures

Sven Mikolon, Ruhr University Bochum
Jan Wieseke, Ruhr University Bochum
Benjamin Quaiser, FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie & Management Berlin



Capitalizing on a large-scale field experimental data set involving 1254 airline customers, this study introduces customer inoculation as a proactive strategy for mitigating negative consequences of service failures on customer satisfaction. By contrast, traditional strategies focus on addressing service failures after they have occurred. This study shows that customer inoculation eases the decrease in satisfaction when customers experience a service failure. Additional analyses indicate that customer inoculation has no harmful effects on customer satisfaction if no service failure occurs. This finding sets inoculation apart from expectation management and underscores the potential inoculation has for marketing practice.

Customer Satisfaction,Customer Inoculation,Service Failure

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Sven Mikolon, Ruhr University Bochum
Session 1.18.4
Service Failures and Customer Satisfaction
2

Why Dissatisfied Customers Buy Again? The Role of Self-Attribution

Stefanie Paluch, TU Dortmund University
Soeren Koecher, TU Dortmund University
Andreas Kessenbrock, TU Dortmund University



This paper examines the influence of service dissatisfaction on repurchase intentions and the moderating effect of self-attribution. First, we examine the influence of service performance on service satisfaction, repurchase intentions, and the moderating effect of self-attribution in a self-service setting. In a second step, we investigate the effect of ease of use and usefulness on the self-attribution. We use an experimental approach with 287 undergraduate students. Analysis indicates the link between service satisfaction and repurchase intentions is diminished with an increasing self-attribution. The experiments confirm that perceived ease of use and usefulness generally lead to higher self-attribution of service outcomes.

Self-Attribution,Self-Service-Technology,Service-Failure

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Sven Mikolon, Ruhr University Bochum
Session 1.18.4
Service Failures and Customer Satisfaction
3

Antecedent and Consequences of Positive Word of Mouth From WOM Sender’s Perspective: A Conceptual Framework in the Services Context

Rahul Chawdhary, Kingston University / Kingston Business School
Francesca Dall' Olmo Riley, Kingston University Business School




This paper outlines a conceptual framework of the antecedent and consequences of offline positive word of mouth (P-WOM) from the WOM sender’s perspective, as the effect of WOM on WOM’s sender is not well understood. Customer satisfaction (CS) is examined as an antecedent of P-WOM and continuance commitment is purported as a potential moderator of the CS-PWOM relationship. WOM sender’s loyalty & affective commitment are examined as consequences of P-WOM. The tie strength between the WOM participants is proposed as a potential moderator of the P-WOM-service loyalty & P-WOM-affective commitment link. Scenario based experimental research design will be used to test the model. Pre-tests are currently being conducted to validate the scenarios and results of hypotheses testing will be presented at the conference.

Word Of Mouth,Services,Experiments

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Sven Mikolon, Ruhr University Bochum
Session 1.18.4
Service Failures and Customer Satisfaction
4

Breathing Down Your Neck - The Impact of Queues on Customers Using a Service

Martin Dahm, RWTH Aachen University
Daniel Wentzel, RWTH Aachen University
Walter Herzog, WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management



Queues are ubiquitous phenomena in many service industries. While a rich body of research in this field focuses on queues from a waiting perspective, the purpose of this paper is to investigate what happens once a consumer reaches the front of the queue and starts using the service. Drawing on social impact theory (SIT) and social pressure literature, this research indicates that the service experience will be less positive as the number of people waiting behind a customer who is currently using a service increases. It is further shown that social pressure is an important issue in this process.

Queuing,Service Encounter,Social Pressure

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Andreas Eggert, University of Paderborn
Session 1.2.1
Value
1

Creating Value-In-Use in B2b Markets: The Role of Customer Resource Integration Readiness

Ilias Danatzis, Free University of Berlin
Michael Kleinaltenkamp, Free University of Berlin




This study explores the role of customer employees’ cognitive and motivational conditions - summarized as customer resource integration readiness - that are required for value-in-use creation in business markets. In addition, customer development efforts are investigated as means on how suppliers can support their customers’ resource integration process. Drawing from Service (Dominant) Logic, buying center and customer socialization literature, we propose a conceptual model aiming at explaining the relationship between customer development efforts, customer resource integration readiness and value-in-use creation on an individual and collective level. Accordingly, two research areas are identified and subsequent suggestions made for future empirical investigation.

Value-In-Use,Resource Integration,Customer Readiness

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Andreas Eggert, University of Paderborn
Session 1.2.1
Value
2

Value Co-Creation with Strategic Customers

Sylvie Lacoste, Neoma Business School





Our research tries to bridge the gap between the Service Dominant Logic (SDL) paradigm and strategic account management (SAM) research to answer the question: how is value “co-created” within a supplier and strategic customer networks? We develop the theory through an interpretative approach and our findings help to better understand how the SDL program of value co-creation translates into supplier and strategic customer networks: the customer network is first used by the supplier to create some understanding of end users’ behaviours and to act upon them whereas the supplier network creates then the “fit” with the strategic customer’s or its end user’s expectations by delivering a service offering targeting at performance or supply chain integration.

Service Dominant Logic,Value Co-Creation,Strategic Customer

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Andreas Eggert, University of Paderborn
Session 1.2.1
Value
3

The Effects of Value Creation and Relationship Quality Co-Alignment on a Firm'S Performance in Business Markets

Jose Angel Lopez Sanchez, University of Extremadura
Maria Leticia Santos Vijande, University of Oviedo
Primitiva Pascual Fernandez, University of Oviedo



This study intends to contribute to a better understanding of how value creation co-aligns with relationship quality, and how this co-alignment affects a firm’s performance. To examine this question a theoretical framework is developed following a configuration theory approach. The unit of analysis is the dyadic relationship between manufacturers and their main distributor. The empirical results reveal that: (i) not all the manufacturers have the same orientation towards their creation of value for the main distributor; and (ii) that the co-alignment between their creation of value for the main distributor and the dimensions of relationship quality yields stronger distributor loyalty. This was not the case, however, with manufacturer’s business performance for which no such relationship was found.

Value,Quality,Co-Alignment

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Andreas Eggert, University of Paderborn
Session 1.2.1
Value
4

Searching for Value Drivers in the Business-To-Business Marketing: the Perception of Health Care Professionals

Ivan Russo, University of Verona
Ivan Russo, University of Verona, Departmente of Management
Ilenia Confente, University of Verona, Departmente of Management
Nicola Cobelli, University of Verona, Departmente of Management


The research provides a better understanding of business relationships between suppliers and industrial buyers. Based on previous research models, we particularly explored the value drivers that interviewed health professionals, as buyers, perceive as relevant in the hearing aids distribution industry. Respondents identified new key-drivers in the relationship between them and the suppliers of hearing aids, enriching previous research. As the boundaries between final customers, industrial buyers, and suppliers become uncertain, understanding the health care professionals’ role and their perspective may not only provide new models to improve business relationships, but also require a fundamental rethinking about how to deliver value and manage marketing strategy today.

Customer Value,Intermediaries,Business To Business Relationship

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Thomas Ritter, Copenhagen Business School
Session 1.2.2
Organizational Issues
1

Business Development: A New Organizational Anchorage of Strategic Marketing in B2b Companies?

Jana Poelzl, University of Hohenheim
Anne Theresa Eidhoff, University of Hohenheim
Markus Voeth, University of Hohenheim



Marketing is an established discipline in B2B companies. However, during the last years marketing has experienced a shift from strategic to operational tasks. Since B2B companies still have a need for market-orientation as well as for departments to be in charge of this, the question arises in which departments strategic marketing tasks are performed. One possibility is given by the newly established business development units. So far scarcely any prior research analyzes the scope of tasks of business development in practice. Hence the purpose of this paper is to analyze on the basis of a preliminary qualitative study what tasks, instruments and methods are found in business development with regard to the question if and how business development departments take over typical tasks of strategic marketing.

Business Development,Strategic Marketing,Business-To-Business

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Thomas Ritter, Copenhagen Business School
Session 1.2.2
Organizational Issues
2

Conceptualization and Validation of Organizational Networking as a Second-Order Formative Construct

Sabrina Thornton, University of Huddersfield
Stephan Henneberg, Queen Mary, University of London
Peter Naudé, Manchester Business School



This study operationalizes the construct of organizational networking through a rigorous two-stage scale construction and validation process. The measurement model is conceptualized as a second-order formative construct with four first-order reflective constructs based on a four-dimensional view of organizational networking. The scale was evaluated at the first- and second-order levels. A MIMIC (multiple indicators and multiple causes) model was employed to assess the validity of the formative measurement model. The results suggest that all four components significantly contribute to the overarching second-order construct. Thus, our operationalization confirms the uniqueness of the different dimensions of organizational networking that should be configured by managers as a strategy of sensing and seizing the network.

Organizational Networking,Network Management,Scale Development

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Thomas Ritter, Copenhagen Business School
Session 1.2.2
Organizational Issues
3

Implementing Key Account Management: Key Dimensions and Outcomes

Spiros Gounaris, University of Strathclyde
Dr. Nektarios Tzempelikos, Anglia Ruskin University
Dr. Michael Macdermott, Northern Kentucky University



Key Account Management (KAM) has emerged as an important concept in business-to-business (B2B) marketing, yet academic research lags in this area. This study based on a review of KAM literature and related research areas, identifies organizational and relational dimensions of KAM implementation, and reports on empirical data from 304 suppliers. It examines the impact of each of the dimensions on KAM effectiveness. The results show that relational mediators positively relate to KA performance and dyadic outcomes from KAM relationships. The findings provide insights into the role of customers in the implementation of KAM. Implications and future research are discussed.

Relationship,Kam,Implementation

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Thomas Ritter, Copenhagen Business School
Session 1.2.2
Organizational Issues
4

Drivers of Sales Innovation in Business-To-Business Firms

Thomas Ritter, Copenhagen Business School
Jens Geersbro, Copenhagen Business School




This paper defines the term sales innovation, offers an operationalization of the concept, and discusses antecedents of sales innovation in terms of important internal and external drivers. An empirical analysis of 409 B2B firms identifies the internal drivers of sales innovation as increased top management focus and increased resource allocation as well as increasing customer and competitor dynamics as external drivers. Despite the suggested positive impact of the degree of competitive pressure on sales innovation, the empirical results suggest a significant negative impact, i.e. competitive pressure leads to less innovation in sales. Finally the paper suggests managerial implications as well as avenues of further research in this area.

Sales,Innovation,Dynamics

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Robert Wilken, ESCP - Europe Business School Berlin
Session 1.2.3
Negotiation
1

Pattern Your Concessions? An Analysis of Concession Behavior in Buyer-Seller Negotiations

Birte Kemmerling, Potsdam University
Uta Herbst, Potsdam University
Tatjana Becker, University of Hohenheim
Markus Voeth, University of Hohenheim


Concessions are critical in buyer-seller negotiations, since they influence the (non-)achievement of a contractual agreement. Existing research has extensively studied concession behavior in negotiations. However, to date, no study has examined the continuous exchange process of offers and counteroffers between the negotiation parties (e.g., concession patterns) in realistic buyer-seller negotiations. Our study primarily analyzes whether different concession patterns exist, and if so, how they impact the negotiation outcome, especially concerning the opponent’s concession behavior. We identified four different concession patterns and found, among others, that following a specific concession pattern achieves better negotiation outcomes than not applying a specific concession pattern.

Buyer-Seller Negotiation,Concession Behavior,Negotiation Performance

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Robert Wilken, ESCP - Europe Business School Berlin
Session 1.2.3
Negotiation
2

The Influence of Negotiators’ Individualism on Disaggregated Outcomes in Multi-Issue Business Negotiations

Tayfun Aykac, ESCP- Europe Business School Berlin
Robert Wilken, ESCP - Europe Business School Berlin




We investigate bargaining teams’ level of individualism as an antecedent of disaggregated outcomes on high- and middle-priority issues (HPIs and MPIs, respectively). French vs. German-French vs. German teams are employed to represent increased levels of individualism. We find that increased individualism increases performance on high-priority issues (HPIs) and decreases relative performance on middle-priority issues (MPIs). More specifically, highly individualistic teams favor the high-priority approach, whereas low-level individualistic teams follow a more balanced approach. The culturally mixed teams combine both approaches and perform best on an aggregated outcome dimension. Thus, we can generally recommend a “multifocal” approach to multi-issue negotiations. To promote such an approach, negotiation teams composed of members with different levels of individualism should be employed.

Individualism,Multi-Issue Negotiation,Team Negotiation

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Robert Wilken, ESCP - Europe Business School Berlin
Session 1.2.3
Negotiation
3

Renegotiations in Business-To-Business Practice: A Qualitative Status Quo Analysis

Aline Kugler, University of Hohenheim
Markus Voeth, University of Hohenheim, Institute of Marketing and Management, Chair of Marketing I
Melanie Hein



In recent years, renegotiations have become more prevalent in business-to-business transactions. Although renegotiations have a strong impact on business efficiency and relationships, marketing science has not adequately addressed this topic. Research on renegotiations in business-to-business marketing is thus urgently needed. To address this research gap, we present a qualitative study in which we conducted 17 in-depth interviews with negotiation experts to gain insights into renegotiations in business-to-business practice. In these interviews, we analyzed the appearance, drivers and motives, acceptance and handling, as well as the consequences of renegotiations. We derived several insights that may serve as a valuable basis for further research.

Negotiations,Renegotiations,Business-To-Business Marketing

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Robert Wilken, ESCP - Europe Business School Berlin
Session 1.2.3
Negotiation
4

ls There a Better Style to Negotiate? An Analysis of Negotiation Styles and their Impacts on Buyer-Seller Negotiations

Melanie Katrin Preuss, Potsdam University
Uta Herbst, Potsdam University




Given the importance of negotiation outcomes on profits, companies are increasingly investing in negotiation training to optimally prepare their sales and procurement teams and to improve their negotiation performance. In this context, the analysis of different negotiation styles (e.g., dominating, integrating, etc.) has received much attention in the literature. Interestingly, however, to date, there are few insights on which negotiation style is the best to choose, especially concerning the counterpart’s style. This paper analyzes this question by applying an extensive coding system to a realistic buyer-seller negotiation experiment. Among others, our results indicate that applying the dominating negotiation style yields the worst negotiation outcomes – irrespective of the counterparty’s style.

Negotiation Styles,Negotiation Performance,Coding System

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Elina Jaakkola, Turku School of Economics
Session 1.2.4
Buying Decision/Buying Center
1

Are Influential Buying Center Members Really Important for Industrial Purchase Decisions? Further Insights into Buying Center Decision-Making

Uta Herbst, Potsdam University
Timo Andreas Knöpfle, Potsdam University
Markus Voeth, University of Hohenheim



Existing explanatory models and related measurement methods on buying center decision-making do not suggest a differentiated consideration of the influence construct. In this paper we specify the current view of a member’s influence in group decision-making by applying the Social Power Theory. Specifically, we investigate whether an integration of the individual’s motivation to exert influence (e.g. preference intensity) into existing measuring methods is able to improve the estimation accuracy of buying center decisions. The results of two extensive validation studies in different industrial sectors yield improved predictive validities.

Buying Center Decision-Making,Multi-Step Limit Conjoint Analysis,Influence

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Elina Jaakkola, Turku School of Economics
Session 1.2.4
Buying Decision/Buying Center
2

Where Should Fairness Judgment Be Anchored? Fairness as a Decision Heuristic for Achieving Inter-Firm Compliance

Miaomiao Zhu, Free University of Berlin
Michael Kleinaltenkamp, Freie Universitaet Berlin
Ingmar Geiger, Freie Universitaet Berlin



Achieving compliance from business partners is considered to be important for firms, yet the use of influence strategies to elicit compliance is one-sided and sometimes aggressive. Previous channel research suggests that a distributor’s fair judgment on supplier’s initiated project will lead to a compliance with it. This work extends the existing research by exploring the role of fairness judgment regarding overall business relationship in affecting compliance with general requests. A cross-cultural survey was conducted in Germany and China, and the results reveal that distributive fairness judgment, dependence and social bond have positive impacts on compliance. Furthermore, this work also investigates on the sources of inter-firm fairness judgment. General discussion and limitations are provided.

Fairness Judgment,Compliance,Inter-Cultural Study

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Elina Jaakkola, Turku School of Economics
Session 1.2.4
Buying Decision/Buying Center
3

A Reliance-Centered Perspective on Competitive Advantages – Which Promises Matter Most in a Pre-Purchase Setting?

Philipp Johannes Nolte, Düsseldorf University
Bernd Guenter, Düsseldorf University




The article proposes a new taxonomy and managerial approach to competitive advantages. Two central suggestions are made. First, the list of competitive advantages understood as customer advantages and therefore: advantages carried out, i.e. observable value added for customers – should be extended to time-related differences. Second, implemented competitive advantages should to be regarded as evoked and ongoing expectations of fulfilled promises. Reliance understood as the fulfilment of promises consequently acts as a premise for the constitution of a competitive advantage and might even be regarded as an advantage itself. The paper provides empirical insights from a large sample study conducted in a B-to-B pre-purchase setting asking for decision criteria of organizational buyers. The results of this study indicate support for both suggestions.

Reliance,Competitive Advantage,Supplier Selection

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Elina Jaakkola, Turku School of Economics
Session 1.2.4
Buying Decision/Buying Center
4

How Do Organizational Buyers Use Customer-To-Customer Information Sharing in Complex Buying?

Elina Jaakkola, Turku School of Economics
Leena Aarikka-Stenroos, Turku School of Economics




Business focus is shifting away from tangibles towards intangibles such as skills and knowledge which makes buying difficult by complicating buyers’ information search. This paper analyzes how organizational buyers use customer-to-customer (C2C) information gained through e.g. word-of-mouth and references in complex buying. By drawing on extensive qualitative interview research among 46 buyers of knowledge-intensive services, we develop a model that present how buyers use C2C information throughout the process of complex buying, e.g. to formulate their actual needs and evaluate suppliers’ capabilities to generate value. This paper contributes to b-to-b and industrial marketing literature. Insights from this research are broadly applicable to the contexts of knowledge intensive, innovation and solutions business.

Organizational Buying,Customer-To-Customer Information,Complex Offerings

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Katja H. Brunk, European School of Management and Techno
Session 1.20.1
Cause Involvement, Brand and Company Image
1

Cause Involvement and Brand-Cause Fit as Determinants of Consumer Responses to CRM Campaigns

Zoi Anagnostidou, Business College of Athens
Solon Magrizos, Athens University of Economics and Business




The present research contributes to the CRM literature by examining the interactive effects of brand-cause fit and cause involvement on consumer attitudes and participation intentions towards CRM campaigns. Despite extensive research, the results regarding the role of fit are mixed. The authors take a new perspective in this relationship and postulate that cause involvement should be examined as a determining factor in the relationship between brand-cause fit and campaign attitudes and participation intentions. An experiment was designed and implemented to test the research hypotheses. Findings suggest that brand-cause fit is an important evaluating factor for CRM alliances only for high involved consumers. Implications for the study are discussed.

Cause-Brand Fit,Cause Involvement,Crm

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Katja H. Brunk, European School of Management and Techno
Session 1.20.1
Cause Involvement, Brand and Company Image
2

Is Good + Bad = Neutral? How Consumers Integrate Information to Form Ethical Brand Perceptions

Katja H. Brunk, European School of Management and Technology
Cara De Boer, European School of Management and Technology




Companies are increasingly concerned about their ethical image and that of their brands. This research builds on the recently emerging literature on consumer perceived ethicality (CPE) and quantitatively explores how consumers form moral impressions of brands. Our analysis suggests that the process is consistent with the configural model of impression formation rather than following an algebraic information integration approach. We furthermore provide empirical evidence for the presence of a negativity bias by showing that unethical information is highly diagnostic in CPE formation.

Brand Perceptions,Impression Formation,Consumer Perceived Ethicality (cpe)

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Katja H. Brunk, European School of Management and Techno
Session 1.20.1
Cause Involvement, Brand and Company Image
3

The Magnitude of Company Image Improvement through Cause Related Marketing

Tutku Eker Iscioglu, Istanbul Kemerburgaz University
Tutku Eker Iscioglu, Istanbul Kemerburgaz University




This study investigates to what extent the company image would improve for a company after applying a cause related marketing (CRM) campaign. It is suggested that the magnitude of company image improvement would be influenced by: (1) company trustworthiness; (2) the type of CRM campaign (being either a strategic or a tactical campaign). To test the hypotheses, repeated measures MANCOVA was used with a sample of 600 respondents in Istanbul, Turkey. The results show that, only the type of CRM campaign improves the company image and surprisingly tactical CRM campaign results in more image improvement than does strategic CRM campaign.

Cause Related Marketing,Company Image,Company Trustworthiness

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Catherine Janssen, IESEG School of Management
Session 1.20.2
Greenwashing and Green Marketing
1

Consumer Perceptions of Greenwashing: The Role of Third-Party Labels, Brand Positioning, and Type of Ad Appeal

Barbara Dupont, Catholic University of Louvain
Catherine Janssen, IESEG School of Management, France
Valérie Swaen, Université Catholique de Louvain, LSM, Belgium & IESEG School of Management, France



Numerous companies today engage in greenwashing, which tends to create confusion for consumers and leads to negative consumer responses. Yet, current literature seldom investigates how consumers’ perceptions of greenwashing emerge. This research seeks to address this gap. Through two experiments, we show that the positioning of the company with respect to CSR and the type of appeal (emotional versus rational) used appear to play key roles in determining consumers’ perceptions of greenwashing, whereas the use of third-party labels has no main significant effect on consumers’ greenwashing perceptions, and can even lead to negative consumer responses.

Greenwashing,Perceptions,Credibility

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Catherine Janssen, IESEG School of Management
Session 1.20.2
Greenwashing and Green Marketing
2

Green Marketing Orientation: Introducing a New Construct

Karolos - Konstantinos Papadas, Athens University of Economics and Business
George J. Avlonitis, Athens University of Economics and Business
Kalipso Karantinou, Athens University of Economics and Business



The literature reflects little effort to develop a framework that embodies all organizational prerequisites that companies should satisfy in order to build a green marketing strategy. The authors synthesize knowledge on the subject and provide a foundation for future research by introducing the construct of Green Marketing Orientation, the organizational perspective of green marketing, and delineating its basic dimensions. The paper draws on the occasional writings on the subject over the last 20 years, work in related disciplines, and 22 in-depth interviews with key informants in diverse organizations, aiming to provide a foundation for the systematic development of a theory of green marketing orientation.

Green Marketing,Green Marketing Orientation,Environmental Orientation

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Catherine Janssen, IESEG School of Management
Session 1.20.2
Greenwashing and Green Marketing
3

Can Evoking Nature In Advertising Mislead Consumers? The Power of ‘executional Greenwashing’

Beatrice Parguel, Paris Dauphine University
Béatrice Parguel, CNRS / Université Paris-Dauphine
Florence Benoît-Moreau, Université Paris-Dauphine
Cristel Russell, Kogod School of Business, American University


‘Executional greenwashing’ refers to the use of nature-evoking elements in advertisements to artificially enhance a brand’s ecological image. Based on classic models of persuasion, a first experiment reveals that evoking nature does mislead consumers, especially if they have low knowledge of environmental issues in the product category. Two complimentary experiments, based on current international policies, show that whereas a raw figure featuring the product objective environmental performance is not sufficient to help non-expert consumers revise their judgment, accompanying the figure with a traffic-light label eliminates the ‘executional greenwashing’ effect amongst both experts and non-experts. Theoretical and regulatory implications are discussed.

Greenwashing,Advertising Execution,Environmental Labeling

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Marjan Sara Jalali, Instituto Universitario de Lisboa
Session 1.20.3
Marketing and Sustainability
1

Developing a Portfolio of Sustainable Labels: Consumer Perceived Ethicality and Patronage Benefits for Retailers

Valéry Bezençon, University of Neuchâtel
Reza Etemad-Sajadi, Ecole Hôtelière de Lausanne (EHL)




Retailers increasingly distribute products with a label guaranteeing that certain environmental or social criteria are met. These sustainable labels contribute directly to the creation of product value. This research investigates how they contribute indirectly to develop the retailer’s overall perception of ethicality. Anchored in the branding literature, this research shows through a consumer survey that the scope of the portfolios of collective and retailer-owned sustainable labels affects the consumer perceived ethicality of the retailer. Also, a greater perceived ethicality of the retailer leads to more consumer patronage. Implications for theory and retailers are discussed.

Label,Sustainability,Portfolio

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Marjan Sara Jalali, Instituto Universitario de Lisboa
Session 1.20.3
Marketing and Sustainability
2

Understanding The Motives For The Adoption of Sustainable Practices: The Role of Expected Rewards, Risk Perception, and Risk Tolerance

Dianne Hofenk, Wageningen University
Joost Pennings, Wageningen University
Andrés Trujillo-Barrera, Wageningen University



The purpose of this study is to examine firms’ motives underlying the adoption of sustainable practices. In particular, we focus on expected economic, social, and personal rewards. In addition, we examine the roles of owner-managers’ risk perception and risk tolerance. We find that the adoption of sustainable practices is affected by expected economic rewards, but not by social and personal rewards. The results also show that perceived risk is a major barrier to the adoption of sustainable practices and that risk tolerance strengthens the effect of expected economic rewards on the probability to adopt sustainable practices.

Motives,Sustainability,Rewards

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Marjan Sara Jalali, Instituto Universitario de Lisboa
Session 1.20.3
Marketing and Sustainability
3

Commitment to Sustainability In Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: The Influence of Market and Entrepreneurial Orientations

Johan Jansson, Umea University / Umea School of Business and Economics
Jonas Nilsson, University of Gothenburg, School of Business, Economics and Law, Business Administration
Frida Modig, Research institute for Sustainability and Ethics in Business, Umeå School of Business and Economics
Gabriella Hed Vall, Research institute for Sustainability and Ethics in Business, Umeå School of Business and Economics


During the last few decades, ecosystem degradation has grown to become a major topic among several actors in society. While larger companies are generally incorporating environmental practices to varying degrees, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are often argued to be lagging. Given this development, this study examines the role of two important strategic orientations, market orientation (MO) and entrepreneurial orientation (EO), and their contribution to commitment to sustainability. Questionnaire responses from 450 SMEs were analyzed showing that both MO as well as EO significantly impacts commitment to sustainability, but in different ways. Theoretical and practical implications of findings are discussed.

Strategic Orientation,Commitment To Sustainability,Market Orientation

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Marjan Sara Jalali, Instituto Universitario de Lisboa
Session 1.20.3
Marketing and Sustainability
4

"Walk the Talk!" Building Corporate Sustainable Brand Strength through a Sustainable Supply Chain

Darlene Farina Whitaker, Saarland University
Victoria Lonnes, Institute for Commerce & International Marketing, Saarland University
Joachim Zentes, Institute for Commerce & International Marketing, Saarland University



Accusations made against green-washing within the corporate branding context have steadily increased. Few studies have investigated the integration of social and environmental aspects in the corporate brand substance, yet. Based on a qualitative pre-study as well as a quantitative business survey, this paper investigates the extent in which the supply chain and its contribution leads to a coporate sustainable brand strength (CSBS). We show that transparency within the supply chain, as well as cooperations with supply chain members are able to enhance sustainable performance, and finally lead to higher CSBS. We further demonstrate that the form of organisation significantly influences the factors which were examinded in our model.

Corporate Social Responsibility (csr),Sustainable Brand Management,Sustainable Supply Chain Management

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Sönke Albers, Kühne Logistics University
Session 1.20.4
Corporate Social Responsibility
1

Do CSR Enhance Premium Customer Preference and Loyalty? An Empirical Study

Matthew Liu, University of Macau
Ipkin Wong, Institute for Tourism Studies, Macau
Rongwei Chu, Fudan University
Ting-Hsiang Tseng, Feng Chia University


This study investigates how perceptions associated with corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives influence customers’ preference and loyalty in a controversial consumer market. We use of questionnaire surveys delivered to a convenience sample in the city of Macau. A total of 616 valid samples were collected among casino players in a high bet limit area in six major casinos. Regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses formulated for carrying the study forward. The findings indicated that customers’ brand preference can be enhanced by their perceptions on CSR. Two CSR initiatives (stakeholders and society) significantly increase loyalty intention, although to varying degrees. The impact of CSR on stakeholders has the stronger influence on customers’ brand preference. In addition, the study also found brand preference is a partial mediator of perceived CSR initiatives and customer loyalty.

Csr Initiatives,Customer Loyalty,Brand Preference

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Sönke Albers, Kühne Logistics University
Session 1.20.4
Corporate Social Responsibility
2

SME CSR and Performance: The Moderating Role of Stakeholder Salience

Solon Magrizos, Athens University of Economics and Business
Eleni Apospori, Athens University of Economics and Business




This paper focuses on the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) actions and firm performance investigating the moderation effect of the salience each stakeholder who benefits from CSR has for the firm. The study focuses on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) due to their collective importance for the economy and their unique CSR characteristics. Based on the data collected from 140 SMEs, the study identifies a positive effect between social and financial performance which becomes more intense as the salience of each stakeholder increases. Implications provide a useful instrument for practitioners seeking to successfully manage their CSR strategy

Csr,Smes,Stakeholders

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Sönke Albers, Kühne Logistics University
Session 1.20.4
Corporate Social Responsibility
3

The Good, the Bad and the Ugly Truth - How Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Violations Affect Marketing Effectiveness

Michael Riechert, Kühne Logistics University
Raoul Kübler, Özyegin University
Sönke Albers, Kühne Logistics University



Although that managers may not intend to act unethically, situations can arise in which consumers interpret ordinary business decisions as a CSR violation. Research so far only focused on the direct negative outcomes of CSR violations like i.e. image and sales losses. However, a violation could also hurt the effectiveness of a company’s marketing instruments like the price- or the product performance elasticity. The present study is based on the answers of 600 participants in four Best/Worst-Scaling experiments. The study investigates the impact of two CSR violation scenarios for hedonic and functional products. The results show a significant decrease in price and product performance sensitivity for the violating company. Contrary, the non-violating company benefits from apositive price elasticity but also suffers from a decrease of the product performance elasticity.

Corporate Social Responsibility Violations,Marketing Effectiveness,Best/worstscaling

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Sönke Albers, Kühne Logistics University
Session 1.20.4
Corporate Social Responsibility
4

The Hierarchy of Effects Model to Understand Customer Responses to CSR in a Recession

Andrea Pérez, University of Cantabria
Ignacio Rodríguez Del Bosque, University of Cantabria




The authors of this paper propose a hierarchy of effects model to study how corporate social responsibility associations impact customer affective and conative responses in the crisis context of the Spanish banking industry. A Structural Equation Model is tested using information collected from 476 customers. The findings demonstrate that corporate social responsibility associations impact customer identification with the banking company and satisfaction positively. Identification, emotions and satisfaction also influence recommendation behaviour positively although only satisfaction determines repurchase behaviour. These results suggest that banking managers facing an economic recession should especially care about corporate social responsibility associations and customer satisfaction in order to benefit from high-involvement customer behaviours such as repurchase behaviour.

Csr Associations,Loyalty,Banking Industry

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Manuel Cuadrado Garcia. University of Valencia
Session 1.3.1
Consumers and Culture
1

Consumers’ Self-Connection to Group-Referent Brands Across Consumption Situations: A Cross-Cultural Study

Burak Tunca, University of Agder





Individuals self-enhance using brands that are associated with reference groups. The current study extends research on this phenomenon by examining the influence of consumption situations and cross-cultural differences. The study was conducted across two distinct cultural settings, namely, Norway and Zambia. In accordance with the theories of self-concept malleability, we find that Zambians have a higher inclination to construct and communicate their identities with group-referent brands in a public consumption situation compared to a private one. On the other hand, we find that Norwegians’ self-brand connections were consistent across consumption situations. Findings indicate that self-concept stability is imperative in integration of brands into the self-concept.

Self-Brand Connection,Reference Groups,Self-Brand Connection

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Manuel Cuadrado Garcia. University of Valencia
Session 1.3.1
Consumers and Culture
2

Factors Affecting the Switching Behaviour for Mobile Service Users in Egypt: A Proposed Conceptual Framework

Esraa Karam Moharram, Cairo University
Wael Kortam, Cairo University
Mohamed Sobhy Temerak, Cairo University



The rapid growth of services has arguably changed the conditions of business in terms of customer attraction and retention. Slow or rapid market growth makes markets more competitive, thus, firms are more likely to attempt to maintain their market share by focusing on the customer retention and aiming to block switching behaviour. This conceptual study aims at exploring and identifying the main factors that lead to customer switching behaviour in the telecommunications industry for mobile users in Egypt. This study is planned to be followed by another paper on empirical testing of propositions to determine the significant effect of each factor on the customer switching behaviour and find out the differential effects among different factor groups.

Switching,Telecommunications,Egypt

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Manuel Cuadrado Garcia. University of Valencia
Session 1.3.1
Consumers Behavior
3

The Impetus of Ancient Tribal Systems for Modern-Day Consumer Tribes

Joerg Finsterwalder, University of Canterbury
Alastair Tombs, University of Queensland




This paper investigates the phenomena of consumer tribes by reflecting on a traditional tribal system, the New Zealand Māori, to uncover tribal structures, ways of interacting and how resources are utilised within a community. We map contemporary conceptualisations of the consumer tribe against that of a traditional tribe. We focus on the traditional tribal structure and its concept of place to explain the creation, retention and distribution of resources in contemporary consumption communities. We propose that tribalism is an appropriate metaphor to explain the integration of people and structure of groups within contemporary societies. As such, it is also possible that the way a tribe’s resources are developed, enhanced, maintained and used by its constituents may explain the similar mechanisms within consumption communities.

Tribes,Māori,Consumer

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Manuel Cuadrado Garcia. University of Valencia
Session 1.3.1
Consumers Behavior
4

Movie theatres and Barriers of Attendance: An Exploratory Study of the Spanish Cinemagoers’ Segments

Nela Filimon, University of Girona
Manuel Cuadrado-García, University of Valencia
Nela Filimon, University of Girona
Finola Kerrigan, Birmingham University
Juan Montoro-Pons, University of Valencia

The sharp decrease of cinema attendance and the emergence of new ways of watching movies invites to a deeper insight into the behaviour of films’ consumers. We analyse the Spanish filmgoers with a special focus on the type of movie theatre and the barriers of cinema attendance. The exploratory latent class methodology suggests four segments of film goers: the commercial cinema audience; the elitist film goers who prefer movie theatres and films in original version (V.O. art film audience.); the omnivore cinemagoers, who prefer both multiplexes in the centre of the city and movie theatres; and the film goers who prefer films in V.O. in multiplexes (V.O. multiplex audience). Findings on probabilistic patterns of film consumption barriers and socioeconomic covariates are consistent with the existing research evidence on film audiences.

Cinema Audiences,Barriers Of Attendance,Latent Classes

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Yvetta Simonyan. University of Birmingham
Session 1.3.2
Consumer's ethics
1

Focusing on Details Results in Tolerance: How Construal Level theory Relates to Consumer Ethical Beliefs

Begum Yetiser, Ghent University
Maggie Geuens, Ghent University
Tine Faseur, Leuven University



To get a better idea of when consumer misconduct is most likely, we relate construal level (CL) to consumers’ tolerance towards ethically questionable consumer practices. Prior research on CL and more severe moral transgressions (outside a consumer context) shows inconsistent findings, possibly because of the use of specific manipulations and scenarios. To avoid such idiosyncratic effects, we measure respondents’ chronic construal level by means of a general scale and we use a consumer beliefs scale designed to cover a wide variety of ethical consumer behaviors. A US study shows that the lower consumers’ chronic level of construal, the more tolerant they are towards ethically questionable acts. This result was replicated in a Turkish sample. Inducing abstract processing could thus be a way to inhibit consumer misbehavior.

Consumer Misbehavior,Construal Level,Consumer Ethics

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Yvetta Simonyan. University of Birmingham
Session 1.3.2
Consumer's ethics
2

Reward Alleviates Moral Licensing Effect

Liyuan Wei, City University of Hong Kong
Xiaohua Zeng, City University of Hong Kong
Na Wen, City University of Hong Kong



Past psychology research has found an increased tendency to act unethically after people have already behaved in an ethical way, known as moral licensing effect. In this research, we propose that rewarding the initial ethical behavior is a viable device to reduce the licensing effect. Supporting this hypothesis, three experiments demonstrate that people who received an external reward for a first ethical behavior acted significantly more ethically in their subsequent choice than those who did not, because receiving the reward reduces the moral credentials earned from the first good deed, threatening people’s moral self-regard, thus motivating them to make ethical choice at the next opportunity.

Reward,Moral Licensing Effect,Ethical Consumer Choice

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Yvetta Simonyan. University of Birmingham
Session 1.3.2
Consumer's ethics
3

Small Urban Retailers: A Motivational Approach to the Spanish Case

Sandra Tena Monferrer, James I Univesity
Juan Carlos Fandos Roig
Javier Sánchez García



The word “motivation” comes from the Latin word “movere” meaning “to move”. On that basis, this paper proposes a scale of measurement of the motives that move a consumer to shop in small urban retailers. Considering the impact of this type of retailers on cities’ growth, economy and wellbeing, it’s necessary to develop more appropriate strategies to continue attracting consumers and fight the crisis situation. With the results obtained we can ratify the working hypothesis that consumers’ motivation to shop in small urban retailers has a multidimensional character, formed by three dimensions and how the underlying economic situation in Spain influenced the emergence of the moral approach.

Motivation,Consumer Behaviour,Retail

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Yvetta Simonyan. University of Birmingham
Session 1.3.2
Consumer's ethics
4

Worse Than Bad: Predicting inferences about Product Quality from Memory

Yvetta Simonyan, University of Birmingham
Daniel Goldstein, Microsoft Research




Could brands associated with mostly negative information–those with poor reputations–be perceived as superior to unrecognized brands? A reasonable consumer should value reputation; however, it is also sensible to put a heavy weight on brand recognition. To investigate this question, the authors study consumers’ inferences about brand quality in five domains. Results suggest that brands associated with predominantly negative information are indeed perceived as of higher quality than unrecognized brands. In addition, when consumer inferences are predicted based on different memory cues, the frequency of encountering a brand dominates what people profess to know about it. The authors explore the ecological rationality of this strategy by studying the relationship between expert-judged quality and consumer knowledge.

Inferences,Communications,Branding

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Harri Luomala. University of Vaasa
Session 1.3.3A
Food: product and experience
1

Predicting the intention to Buy Locally Produced Food: the Role of Attitudes and Store Atmosphere

Elisa Martinelli, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
Jeffrey M. Campbell, The University of South Carolina/Department of Retailing
Ann Fairhurst, The University of Tennessee/Department of Retail, Hospitality, and Tourism Management



The research aims to investigate the predictive role of attitudes and perceptions of store atmosphere in explaining consumers’ intentions to purchase locally produced food. Survey methodology and structural equation modeling using AMOS 22.0 was used to test the measurements and hypotheses. Results evidence that the model presented is supported and that positive attitudes towards locally produced food can directly affect purchase intentions and the perception of store atmosphere, while the latter also exerts an impact on the intention to buy locally produced food. Managerial implications for retailers as well as future research directions for academics are outlined.

Locally Produced Food,Attitudes,Store Atmosphere

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Harri Luomala. University of Vaasa
Session 1.3.3A
Food: product and experience
2

"You Feel Like My Blood, So I Buy Your Food" Can Consumers' Experience of Kinship Account for Preferring Local Foods?

Harri Luomala, University of Vaasa
Hanna Leipämaa-Leskinen, University of Vaasa
Henna Syrjälä, University of Vaasa
Sami Kurki, University of Helsinki


In this study, local food consumption is viewed for the first time from the perspective of kin selection theory. Two large surveys were conducted to explore the links between consumers’ experience of kinship (genetic vs. psychological) and preferring local food products. First, the grocery shop intercept study (n=501) revealed that consumers’ kinship experience is associated with preferring local cheese, cereal, tinned meat and biscuit brands to non-local ones. Second, a web-survey (n=828) produced further evidence suggesting that consumers’ psychological kinship experience is more strongly related to preferring local foods than their genetic kinship experience. These novel results spur several theoretical and managerial implications and lay down a rich avenue for future research.

Food,Kinship,Responsibility

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Harri Luomala. University of Vaasa
Session 1.3.3A
Food: product and experience
3

Fact Or Fiction? the Impact of Framing Product information on Consumer´s Attitude towards A Food Supplement

Jessica Aschemann-Witzel, Aarhus University
Klaus G Grunert, Aarhus University, MAPP
Lisa E Bolton, The Pennsylvania State University



Food marketers have to decide whether scientifically sound, but cumbersome health claims are to be preferred over claims triggering health-related associations in a non-scientific, storytelling fashion. Both types of claims were assessed by US and Danish respondents on a food supplement in an online survey. Attitudes were measured and repeated after respondents had been presented with information contradicting the claims. The results show that story-related claims favourably influence attitudes. Contradictory information has a negative effect on attitudes. However, in the presence of a scientific claim, the contradictory information made respondents reduce favourable attitudes to a lesser extent.

Framing,Health,Food

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Harri Luomala. University of Vaasa
Session 1.3.3A
Food: product and experience
4

The Moderator Role of Self-Efficacy in the intention-Behavior Gap.

Julio D. Vecino Gravel, University of Seville
María A. Ramón-Jerónimo, Pablo de Olavide University




Social psychologists and marketing researchers have found great success in using Ajzen’s (1991) behavioral intention model. However, few studies have found significant support for the moderator role of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977) in the intention-behavior gap (Fishbein and Ajzen, 2010). In this study the moderator effect is supported. We apply Latent Moderated Structural Equations (LMS) in a sample of 500 fish’s consumers to show how for consumers with lower intentions higher levels of self-efficacy favor the apparition of higher levels of real consumption. In consequence, self-efficacy appears as a key factor for fish consumption and those interested in develop this behavior must drive their efforts not only to the creation of an intention, but also giving consumers the necessaries tools to perceive that they are able to evaluate the quality of the fish.

Intention-Behavior Gap,Fish Consumption,Latent Moderated Structural Equations (lms)

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Loes Janssen. Radboud University
Session 1.3.3B
The dimension of consumers' decisions
1

Dimensions and Effects of Consumer Subjective Financial Deprivation

Laurent Bertrandias, University of Toulouse
Manu Carricano, EADA, Barcelona
Alexandre Lapeyre, University of Toulouse III



Subjective financial deprivation (SFD) is a psychological discomfort emerging from social ascendant comparison and/or from the perception of a loss of buying power in comparison with a salient period in the past. Existing literature studies the effects of SFD without making the distinction between these two different origins. The objective of this paper is to go beyond this conceptualization. Through two studies, we show first that the two-dimension model of financial deprivation is more relevant than the one-dimension model. Second, we demonstrate that SFD prompt distinct effects on consumer behavior depending on the social or temporal origin of deprivation.

Financial Deprivation,Social Comparison,Buying Power

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Loes Janssen. Radboud University
Session 1.3.3B
The dimension of consumers' decisions
2

When the Need for Affiliation Heightens Consumers’ Susceptibility to Persuasion Tactics

Loes Janssen, Radboud University
Ilja Van Beest, Tilburg University
Nicole Mead, Erasmus University Rotterdam



Two experiments tested whether social exclusion increases consumers’ susceptibility to advertising strategies that appeal to the need to belong. Socially excluded (vs. socially accepted) participants appeared to be more vulnerable to social proof tactics, arguably because those consumers were on the hunt for social connection. Indeed, tactics that did not connote social connection (e.g., expert endorsement) were moot. The present work reveals how one of humans’ most fundamental motivations, the need to affiliate, influences consumers’ vulnerability to marketing tactics, thereby contributing to a growing body of knowledge on social motivations driving consumer behavior.

Social Exclusion,Persuasion,Social Proof

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Loes Janssen. Radboud University
Session 1.3.3B
The dimension of consumers' decisions
3

All Charity Is Not Created Equally: the Role of Target Affect and Agentic (vs. Communal) Orientation on Consumer Willingness to Contribute Time (vs. Money)

Rhiannon Macdonnell, City University London





Across 4 studies, we assess both what (time vs. money) and to whom (a sad/empathetic target vs. a happy/less empathy-provoking target) consumers are asked to give, showing communal (vs. agentic) orientation moderates helping. Social approach, the preference for close (vs. distant) helping, is proposed as a mediator.

Donation,Volunteer,Prosocial Behavior

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Loes Janssen. Radboud University
Session 1.3.3B
The dimension of consumers' decisions
4

Originality: Perception and Preference

Shibiao Ding, Ghent University
Mario Pandelaere, Ghent University




Originality appeals are ubiquitously applied in marketing campaigns. However, the effect of originality on preference is still not well understood. In a series of 3 studies, the authors examine the effect of entry order and of non-uniqueness on originality perception and preference. The results demonstrate that entry order affects originality perception, but preference only accrues to the very first entrant from relative originality advantage. Moreover, the perception of non-uniqueness affects preference. Specifically, self-generated non-uniqueness lowers evaluation, but other-generated non-uniqueness does not. Originality perception underlies the process of preference formation. The results also reveal that the effect of originality on preference is weakened when goal of identity-expression is attenuated.

Order Effect,Social Categorization,Originality Perception

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Svetlana Bialkova. University of Twente
Session 1.3.4A
Sustainable consumption
1

From Sustainable Consumption to Sustainable Practices

Maud Daniel, Lille II University
Maud Daniel, IMMD Université Lille 2
Lucie Sirieix, Supagro Montpellier



This study examines the sustainable practices adopted by private individuals. Ten households observation, twenty-two face-to-face interviews and three hundreds questionnaires highlight a number of daily practices combining sustainability-oriented and individualistic motivations. Three spheres of sustainable practices (purchases, habits and share/transmission) three patterns (occasional adoption, integration and compensation) and different consumer clusters appear. Recommendations for sustainable marketing are provided.

Sustainable Practices,Sustainable Consumption,Practice Theory

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Svetlana Bialkova. University of Twente
Session 1.3.4A
Sustainable consumption
2

Eco-Consciousness of Celebrities: A theoretical Exploration into how Celebrities Affect Sustainable Consumption

Outi Lundahl, University of Vaasa





Celebrities have become spokespeople for the environment. They have raised people’s interest and awareness of sustainability. However, this has also depoliticised and individualised sustainability. Celebritisation has also deradicalised the cries for anti-materialism and together these developments have led to an emphasis on various eco-products. These commodified solutions are the antithesis of what many commentators argue is the real answer to environmental problems. Theoretical contributions include bringing celebrity influence, status and the symbolic meanings of celebrities into the realm of sustainable consumption research. This means directing the discussion of celebritisation of global issues to sustainable consumption and exploring what are the processes by which celebrities affect sustainable consumption behaviour.

Sustainability,Celebrities,Commodification

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Svetlana Bialkova. University of Twente
Session 1.3.4A
Sustainable consumption
3

Paradoxes of Sustainable Food and Consumer Coping Strategies

Romina Moruzzi, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
Lucie Sirieix, Montpellier SUPAGRO - UMR 1110 MOISA




This study aims to approach consumers’ behaviours towards the paradoxes of Sustainable Food. A qualitative research was carried out with non engaged individuals in France and Italy and, in a second step, with consumers who have already engaged in the local purchase network. Results show different coping strategies among non engaged French and Italian consumers in compliance with the environmental and cultural conditions; on the contrary engaged participants evocate a supranational culture, as well as the same practices and representations.

Sustainable Food,Paradoxes,Coping Strategies

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Svetlana Bialkova. University of Twente
Session 1.3.4A
Sustainable consumption
4

Turning Shopping Habits of Young Consumers into Green

Svetlana Bialkova, University of Twente
Sanne Van 'T Erve, University of Twente
Joris Van Hoof, University of Twente

Ad Pruijn, University of Twente
Accepted and Notified

Consumers have strong shopping habits, and although being aware of sustainable issues, they hardly do green shopping. Therefore, a challenging question is: how to break the old shopping habits and turn those into green? The current study addresses this question looking at barriers and potential stimulators for green purchase. Respondents (N=267) participated in a multi-component survey. The results show that barriers in purchasing green are availability (e.g., money, time, green products), while receiving benefits (e.g., health, personal, local community) are among the stimulators. These outcomes are base to build-up efficient communication tools in encouraging green shopping.

Shopping Habits,Green Purchase,Marketing Communication Tools

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Oliver Büttner. Vienna University
Session 1.3.4B
Impulse buying and self regulation
1

Shopping Situations Elicit Arousal in Excessive Shoppers

Benjamin Serfas, Vienna University
Oliver Büttner, Vienna University
Arnd Florack, Vienna University



The present study is the first that contrasts the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In a laboratory experiment we measured pupil dilation while participants rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that excessive shoppers, get more aroused in shopping situations than prudent shoppers. This is true for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, this effect did not emerge in non-shopping contexts. Hence excessive and prudent shoppers are similar aroused in non-shopping contexts.

Impulse,Shopping,Arousal

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Oliver Büttner. Vienna University
Session 1.3.4B
Impulse buying and self regulation
2

Does one Step forward Seem Larger Than one Step Back? Evidence of a Progress Illusion in Goal Monitoring

Caleb Warren, Texas A&M University
Margaret C. Campbell, University of Colorado, Boulder




While many theories emphasize goal monitoring as a critical step in successfully pursuing goals like saving money or losing weight, surprisingly little research investigates whether consumers accurately monitor their progress. We contribute to the literature by identifying a tendency for consumers to show a progress illusion in goal monitoring. Consumers perceive that goal-consistent behaviors, like saving $30 or resisting an unhealthy snack, help their progress more than equivalent goal-inconsistent behaviors, like spending $30 or eating an unhealthy snack, hurt it. Four experiments show this progress illusion in goal monitoring across a variety of goal domains including finance, exercise, healthy eating, and gambling.

Goals,Self Regulation,Biases

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Oliver Büttner. Vienna University
Session 1.3.4B
Impulse buying and self regulation
3

Reminders of Friendship Enhance the Self-Control of Compulsive Buyers: An Fmri Study

Eline De Vries, Carlos III University
Debra Trampe, University of Groningen
Bob Fennis, University of Groningen
Tammo Bijmolt, University of Groningen
Jan-Bernard Marsman, University of Groningen

We identify the beneficial influence of friendship reminders on the self-control of compulsive buyers. In doing so, we focus on two processes that constitute self-control: consumers’ capacity to identify conflict and their capacity to implement control. Dependent on whether reminders of friendship improve conflict identification and/or control implementation, we expected enhanced activation in the ACC and/or DLPFC when consumers are reminded of friendship. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), our findings suggest that reminders of friendship increase activation in both brain areas. The effect is particularly pronounced for compulsive compared to non-compulsive buyers and renders important insights for consumer welfare.

Compulsive Buying,Friendship,Fmri

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Oliver Büttner. Vienna University
Session 1.3.4B
Impulse buying and self regulation
4

Can Take My Eyes off - Making a Shopping List Reduces Visual Distraction in Shopping Situations

Oliver Büttner, Vienna University
Markus Kempinski, Vienna University
Benjamin Serfas, Vienna University
Arnd Florack, Vienna University


This research examines how shopping lists influence consumers’ susceptibility to impulsive purchases. It is argued that making a shopping list activates an implemental mindset, which reduces the distraction by task-irrelevant products already at the level of visual attention. Results from an experiment using eye-tracking support this hypothesis. In a simulated shopping task, participants who made a shopping list allocated more attention toward a focal product and less attention toward task-irrelevant distractor products compared to participants who did not make a list. The effect occurred independent of whether the shopping list was relevant for the shopping task or not.

Impulsive-Buying,Shopping-List,Attention

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Luigi De Luca, University of Cardiff
Session 1.4.1
Organizational and Team Knowledge
1

Cannibalize and Combine? Antecedents and Outcomes of Two Key Organizational innovation Attitudes

Nukhet Harmancioglu, Koc University
Maria Sääksjärvi, Delft University
Erik Jan Hultink, Delft University



How can a firm ensure its survival and success in the pursuit of both radical and incremental new products? We propose that the answer to this question lies in the establishment of two important organizational innovation attitudes: willingness to cannibalize and product knowledge integration. Using multiple respondent data from 199 Chinese firms, we develop and test a model on the environmental antecedents as well as outcomes of these two organizational innovation attitudes. Our findings indicate that: (1) uncertain, turbulent and competitive environments make willingness to cannibalize as well as product knowledge integration necessary; (2) ambidextrous innovations require both willingness to cannibalize and product knowledge integration; and (3) firms must develop a balanced portfolio of new products for higher performance.

Ambidextrous Innovation,Willingness To Cannibalize,Chinese Market

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Luigi De Luca, University of Cardiff
Session 1.4.1
Organizational and Team Knowledge
2

Organizational Antecedents of Responsive and Proactive Customer Orientation

Cansu Oral, University of St. Gallen
Carla Thaper, University of St.Gallen
Dennis Herhausen, University of St.Gallen
Marcus Schögel, University of St.Gallen


Firms gain a competitive advantage by innovating and creating superior value for their customers. Prior studies revealed that customer orientation affects innovativeness and customer value positively. Customer orientation can either be responsive (RCO) or proactive (PCO). Until now, studies have neglected differences between the antecedents of RCO and PCO. Thus, this paper investigates potential antecedents and their relative impact on PCO and RCO. Results of a survey among 365 managers illustrate that firms should focus on strategy communication, decentralization, customer-oriented leadership, and a customer interaction culture to improve their RCO. By contrast, data intelligence and new customer knowledge lever PCO. Firms might either invest in the levers of PCO to foster their innovativeness or in those of RCO to strengthen customer value.

Responsive Customer Orientation,Proactive Customer Orientation,Innovativeness

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Luigi De Luca, University of Cardiff
Session 1.4.1
Organizational and Team Knowledge
3

Organizational Factors as Antecedents to Innovation Capability in the Hotel Industry

Maria Leticia Santos Vijande, University of Oviedo
Primitiva Pascual Fernández, University of Oviedo
José Ángel López Sánchez, University of Extremadura



This paper analyses the interactions existing among innovativeness, market orientation and internal marketing in hotels, and the effect that these factors exert on innovation capability. The proposed conceptual model has been assessed using a system of structural equations based on a sample taken from 256 hotels. The results show that: (1) innovativeness and internal marketing constitute the organizational antecedents to market orientation, (2) market orientation promotes the innovation capability within the hotel industry, (3) innovativeness and internal marketing in themselves do not exert a significant influence on the development of innovative activity of the hotels, and (4) innovation capability within hotel companies leads to the acquisition of positive organizational performance.

Innovation,Performance,Hotels

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Luigi De Luca, University of Cardiff
Session 1.4.1
Organizational and Team Knowledge
4

Improvisation for Fast-Paced Product innovation: the Moderating Role of Team Expertise

Kyriakos Kyriakopoulos, Alba Graduate Business School at the American College of Greece
Marcel Van Birgelen, Radboud University Nijmegen / Nijmegen School of Management




Fast new product development (NPD) is a top priority in rapidly changing markets. Improvisation, a form of unplanned action in which composition and execution converge in time, has emerged as a competence for accelerating NPD in face of uncertainty. Yet, research has failed to explore this potential. To fill in this void, we seek to explore how various types of team expertise shape the speed outcomes of improvisation in NPD. Specifically, we explore the moderating role of expertise diversity, declarative expertise, and transactive expertise. The results of a survey of NPD projects from 118 manufacturing firms show that expertise diversity and declarative expertise weaken while transactive memory strengthens the impact of improvisation on new product speed.

Improvisation,Expertise,Speed

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Hans Eibe Soerensen, University of Southern Denmark
Session 1.4.2
Market & Entrepreneurial Orientation
1

Alliance Market Orientation and New Product Performance in High-Tech Industries

Pelin Bicen, Pennsylvania State University





Market orientation has traditionally been examined as an intra-firm concept. However, as firms often collaborate with other firms to create offerings that have superior value to customers, there is a burgeoning need to explore market orientation as an inter-firm phenomenon. Consequently, this paper conceptualizes alliance market orientation (AMO) as a relational capability that enables an alliance to (1) jointly and systematically gather market intelligence, (2) inter-organizationally coordinate and disseminate the knowledge gleaned from the market intelligence gathered, and (3) efficiently and effectively respond to the knowledge that is coordinated and disseminated. Using data from 246 dyadic new product alliances in high-tech industries, the authors find that AMO has a significant positive effect on the new product creativity of alliances and that it completely mediates the effects of its antecedents on new product creativity and performance.

Alliance Market Orientation,Idiosyncratic Resources,New Product Performance

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Hans Eibe Soerensen, University of Southern Denmark
Session 1.4.2
Market & Entrepreneurial Orientation
2

Entrepreneurial Orientation and New Product Performance: the Moderating Role of Formal Control Systems

Civilai Leckie, Swinburne University of Technology
Heath Mcdonald, Swinburne University of Technology




An organisation with a strong Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) is characterised by risk-taking, innovativeness and pro-active behaviour. Prior studies have substantiated the importance of EO in improving organisational performance, particularly in developing new products. This is somewhat at odds, however, with another stream of research that has argued the importance of two formal control mechanisms to effective product development: Stage-Gate system (SGS) and Product Management (PM). This paper examines whether an organisation that adopts an entrepreneurial orientation can still benefit from using formal control mechanisms in their new product development processes. We examine the impact of EO, SGS and PM on both decision-making comprehensiveness (DMC) and new product performance. Results suggest that SGS strengthens the relationship between EO and decision-making comprehensiveness (DMC) while PM weakens such a relationship. However, the implementation of both SGS and PM strengthens the relationship between EO and DMC.

New Product Performance,Entrepreneurial Orientation,Stage-Gate System

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Hans Eibe Soerensen, University of Southern Denmark
Session 1.4.2
Market & Entrepreneurial Orientation
3

Business Development: Measurement and Performance

Hans Eibe Soerensen, University of Southern Denmark





Business development tasks and processes span a growth opportunity's planning phase and implementation phase. This exploratory study aims at clarifying and empirically verifying the business development construct and addressing its unique organizational design and performance implications. On the basis of 198 CEO responses from growth enterprises and growth entrepreneurs, the results indicate that business development and its two components – business planning sophistication and developer support – have differential effects on firm performance. The research and managerial implications are discussed.

Business Development,Measurement,Performance

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Kande Kazadi, University of Antwerp
Session 1.4.3
User-Involvement and Open Innovation
1

Building an Innovation Community: An Empirical Analysis of How to Encourage External Stakeholders to Participate in the Firm’s NPD Process

Johanna Brunneder, Geneva University/HEC Geneva
Marcel Paulssen, HEC Geneva




The integration of external stakeholders in firms’ NPD process has found increasing interest in business research and practice. Central to this topic are virtual innovation communities managed by firms in order to facilitate the exchange with external stakeholders and in order to involve them in the different stages of the NPD process. To date empirical research on the drivers of participation of these external stakeholders in virtual innovation communities is lacking. The authors test a comprehensive model of how perceived benefits, individual member characteristics and relational characteristics influence members’ participation behavior in virtual innovation communities. The results indicate that hedonic benefits, competence and affective commitment to the virtual network play a crucial role in determining participation behavior in innovation communities.

Innovation Community,Stakeholder Participation,Community Commitment

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Kande Kazadi, University of Antwerp
Session 1.4.3
User-Involvement and Open Innovation
2

Should I introduce My Partner?: Exploring the Effects of Stakeholder Cocreation on Consumers’ New Product Valuations

Kande Kazadi, University of Antwerp
Annouk Lievens, University of Antwerp
Dominik Mahr, Maastricht University



An emerging stream of research explores the effects of involving consumers during new product development. Yet, in recent years firms have started to cocreate products with multiple types of stakeholders, not just consumers. This paper examines the effects of stakeholder cocreation on consumers’ valuations of new products in two studies. Contrary to extant research, the results show that in the context of complex products, consumers value cocreation with multiple stakeholders, rather than cocreation with only consumers. Furthermore, the results reveal the underlying process that explains this relationship. Consumers perceive firms, that cocreate with a highly diverse group of stakeholders, as more capable in creating innovative products and are subsequently willing to pay more for those products.

Stakeholder Cocreation,Consumer Cocreation,New Product Valuation

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Kande Kazadi, University of Antwerp
Session 1.4.3
User-Involvement and Open Innovation
3

Open Innovation: A Double-Edged Sword?

Sören Köcher, TU Dortmund University
Stefanie Paluch, TU Dortmund University
Sarah Küsgen, TU Dortmund University



Innovation contests have become a widely-used open innovation instrument to gather new product ideas. This research examines positive and potential negative effects of this open innovation technique by analyzing the impact of a successful and unsuccessful participation in idea competitions on three key performance figures, namely purchase, word-of-mouth, and loyalty intentions. Experimental results demonstrate that – besides positive effects of a successful participation – unsuccessful participation entails adverse side effects triggered by negative emotions.

Open Innovation,Emotions,Negative Effects

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Kande Kazadi, University of Antwerp
Session 1.4.3
User-Involvement and Open Innovation
4

If You Are Attractive and Fair, I’ll Do it Myself! Assessing Mass Customization Processes in the Light of Product Aesthetics and Perceived Fairness.

Ursula Scholl-Grissemann, Innsbruck University
Karin Teichmann, Innsbruck University
Nicola E. Stokburger-Sauer, Innsbruck University
Benedikt Schnurr, Innsbruck University


This research analyzes the impact of different mass customization toolkits (i.e. functional, aesthetic, and supreme toolkits) and mass customization toolkit options (many vs. few) on customers’ process enjoyment and satisfaction with the company. It further analyzes whether customers’ evaluation of the mass customization process differs in a fair vs. unfair scenario. Product category involvement and product category expertise and their moderating effects are assessed. Results from three experimental studies demonstrate that process enjoyment with an aesthetic toolkit is higher than with a functional toolkit, and that a supreme toolkit does not increase process enjoyment further. Moreover, the paper reveals that perceived fairness plays a significant role in customers’ satisfaction with the company. Important implications for managers are discussed.

Mass Customization,Product Aesthetics,Perceived Fairness

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Max Philipp Backhaus, University of Cologne
Session 1.4.4
Preannouncement and Timing
1

Diminishing Returns to New Product Announcements: How the Past Shapes Investors’ Expectations of Firms’ Innovative Output

Nooshin Lotfi, Texas A&M University
Alina Sorescu, Texas A&M University




As firms’ innovation activity increases, investors’ expectations of firms’ future innovative output also increase. How do these expectations form and what is their impact on investor reactions to firms’ new product announcements? Using a comprehensive sample of new product announcements we show that the magnitude of the stock market reaction to a new product announcement is negatively related to a set of firm and market characteristics. Furthermore, we verify that firms’ past history of new product announcements is incorporated in their market value measured prior to each new announcement. Our research can help managers select and time new product announcements in a manner that increases the impact that these announcements have on the value of their firms.

New Product Announcement,Event Study,Stock Market

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Max Philipp Backhaus, University of Cologne
Session 1.4.4
Preannouncement and Timing
3

Come and See What We‘ve Found: Reconsidering Uncertainty in Preannouncements

Roland Schroll, Innsbruck University
Reinhard Grohs, Innsbruck University




Before a firm undertakes a particular action, such as a product launch, information asymmetry and uncertainty exist about the exact details. While existing preannouncement literature views uncertainty as generally negative and, thus, suggests to avoid uncertainty at all times, this paper argues for a more nuanced understanding of uncertainty in preannouncements. Findings demonstrate that uncertain preannouncements lead to higher market anticipation (curiosity, excitement, and interest) than certain preannouncements. Therefore, instead of always avoiding uncertainty, firms should strategically manage uncertainty in preannouncements, but need to take into consideration the level of uncertainty they communicate in their preannouncements.

Preannouncements,Uncertainty,Product Launch

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Max Philipp Backhaus, University of Cologne
Session 1.4.4
Preannouncement and Timing
4

Accelerating Innovations: When Do they Pay off?

Max Philipp Backhaus, University of Cologne
Kai Luegger, University of Muenster
Robert Wilken, ESCP Europe



Accelerated innovations occur frequently, as (a) time to introduction of subsequent generations decreases; or (b) innovations diffuse faster. Although generally viewed as a chance rather than a threat, accelerated innovations are not necessarily beneficial, because decreased time to introduction does not always accompany accelerated diffusion. In this light, we investigate the effects of accelerated innovations on the profitability of a first-generation innovation (G1) replaced by G2. A case study on the DRAM industry provides the basis for a Monte Carlo simulation, which considers combinations of diffusion, cost, and price parameters. Costs and diffusion of G1 influence its profitability most. Interestingly, G2 diffusion parameters are much less influential; the mere early introduction is more decisive on the profitability of G1.

Accelerated Innovation,Norton/bass Model,Monte Carlo Simulation

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Marketing Education
Chair: David Arnott, University of Warwick
Session 1.6.1
Learning Process
1

What do Students Really Think? Understanding Postgraduate Students' Perceptions of Service Quality

Anna Ackfeldt, Aston University
Benjamin Klitzke, WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management
Laura M Chamberlain, Aston University
Anna-Lena Ackfeldt, Aston University


This paper explores the components of Service Quality in HE from the Business School Postgraduate student perspective. A six-dimensional scale measuring Service Quality is developed based on focus group and survey data. Our findings highlight that postgraduate students are highly outcome oriented; the award of a reputable degree to gain employment is more important than learning for life. Whilst developing employable graduates, Business Schools must not neglect the core service; teaching & learning. In the long-term this contributes to employability rates and the reputation of institutions. However, as student satisfaction is an increasingly paramount objective, balancing the core service and factors perceived as important by postgraduate students is key.

Service Quality,Higher Education,Postgraduate Students

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Marketing Education
Chair: David Arnott, University of Warwick
Session 1.6.1
Learning Process
2

Time of Submission: An Indicator of Procrastination and a Correlate of Performance on Undergraduate Marketing Assignments

David Arnott, University of Warwick
Scott Dacko, University of Warwick




Research that relates academic procrastination to student performance relies on self-completed questionnaires. This study seeks to identify an immediate, non-intrusive indicator (based on actual behavior) of procrastination. The three hypotheses exploring time of submission versus marks awarded are supported, thus demonstrating a significant relationship between time of submission and academic performance. The study further contributes by demonstrating that delayed but still pre-deadline submission due to procrastination has serious and detrimental effects on performance. Our conclusions suggest that if this poor study habit can be eradicated in the students’ first year, it may aid their degree classifications and employability.

Procrastination,Performance,Timeliness

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Marketing Education
Chair: David Arnott, University of Warwick
Session 1.6.1
Learning Process
3

Formation of Expectations for Online MBA Units and its Impact on Satisfaction

Lars Groeger, Macquarie Graduate School of Management
Lara Moroko, Macquarie Graduate School of Management




Interest in online MBAs has grown rapidly over the past decade. We seek to explore student expectations as a driver of student satisfaction, in the context of online MBA learning. Following expectation-confirmation theory (ECT) we set out a two stage research agenda to explore how MBA students undertaking online courses form their expectations, and subsequently, how online learning environments should be designed to respond to better address these expectations.

Online Mba,Expectations,Satisfaction

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Marketing Education
Chair: Angela Paladino, University of Melbourne
Session 1.6.2
Educational tools
1

Clickers: Educational Applications in University Teaching

Lidya Jareño Macías, University of Granada
Myriam Martínez Fiestas, ESAN University
Francisco Liébana Cabanillas, University of Granada



The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) by students has been broadly studied over time. Until now, many innovations have been introduced on a continuous basis, including among others, multimedia tools, wikis and even microblogging networks. Using clickers as a new teaching tool will improve the quality of education, favor involving students in classroom activities, and, consequently, improve their performance. However, there are not sufficient studies that examine the factors that influence and determine student’s intention to use or not this system in their classes. This paper examines this issue based on a survey applied (N=297). Our findings show usefulness is the main consideration mentioned by students for using the Q-Click software, followed by subjective considerations and the device’s user-friendliness.

Educational Technology,Interactive Learning,University Education

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Marketing Education
Chair: Angela Paladino, University of Melbourne
Session 1.6.2
Educational tools
2

The CMGS (Case Method With Guest Speakers) Project: Developing Experienced Learning in Sales Management Education

José Luis Ruíz de Alba, University of Málaga
Estefania Almenta López, University of Malaga
Maria L. Vallespin Aran, University of Malaga



The implementation of the CMGS (Case Method with Guest Speakers) Project in Sales Management courses provides Marketing undergraduate students with first-hand practical knowledge about how a sales manager can deal with a wide variety of professional scenarios. In order to apply this methodology, eight sales managers were invited to a Sales Management Course as guest speakers. Students were required to prepare the sessions, gathering information about the sector and identifying areas of special interest to be discussed. This provided an opportunity for interaction between students and sales professionals. Findings suggest the desirability of employing this methodology in other courses.

Innovative Teaching,Case Method,Experienced Learning

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Marketing Education
Chair: Angela Paladino, University of Melbourne
Session 1.6.2
Educational tools
3

Using the Rasch Model for the Development and Assessment of Multiple-Choice Tests in Marketing: Some Practical Guidelines

Udo Wagner, Vienna University
Marion Garaus, University of Vienna




Recent developments in university education lead to marketing courses of hundreds of students. To cope with the challenge of efficient and fair test assessment, lecturers have switched to easily processable multiple-choice exams. In order to overcome the criticism of unfair and superficial multiple-choice tests, this paper suggests continuously evaluating such tests by the use of the Rasch model. Practical guidelines about the estimation and the interpretation of the Rasch model are outlined. Implications for marketing education research and possible explanations for different item functioning among two scrambling groups are discussed.

Multiple Choice Tests,Test Development,Rasch Model

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Marketing of Public and Non-Profit Organisations
Chair: Luisa Andreu, University of Valencia
Session 1.8.1
Emotions and Decision Making in Public and NPO
1

Negative Emotions and Pro-Social Persuasion: The Role of Anxiety Toward Death in Charities’ Campaigns Success

Jeanne Albouy, ESC - Pau Groupe Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Pau





This paper is intended to enlighten one of the mechanisms which underlie the efficiency of shocking charities’ campaigns. Through the “death anxiety” concept, we especially focus on the relationship that the benefactor (and not the beneciary) has with his own death. Based on the Terror Management Theory, we develop a set of hypothesis which are tested by a quantitative experiment (n=600). The results show that death anxiety has not a conditional role but operates as an antecedent of the negative emotions elicited by the charitable appeal. Negative emotions then mediate the effect of death anxiety on charitable attitudes and intention to give. This particular perspective of the emotion-based prosocial persuasion is discussed.

Negative Emotions,Prosocial Persuasion,Death Anxiety

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Marketing of Public and Non-Profit Organisations
Chair: Luisa Andreu, University of Valencia
Session 1.8.1
Emotions and Decision Making in Public and NPO
2

Multiple Charity Support Behaviour over Six Months

Philip Stern, University of Exeter
Margaret Faulkner, Ehrenberg-Bass Institute, University of South Australia
Jenni Romanuik, Ehrenberg-Bass Institute, University of South Australia



Charitable organisations play an important role in providing services for communities, with most reliant on the support of individuals. Recessions internationally have increased the challenge of attracting and retaining supporters. The support behaviour shown toward charities is considered different to that displayed in for-profit markets, thus requiring specific models to explain behaviour. We check this assumption with online data of a broad range of support activities to charities over six months. We find supporters are polygamous rather than solely loyal, with around 5 charities supported. This challenges assumptions held by charity marketers and suggests the model can help marketers to inform their decisions to optimise precious marketing resources in the charity sector.

Charity,Support,Portfolio

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Marketing of Public and Non-Profit Organisations
Chair: Luisa Andreu, University of Valencia
Session 1.8.1
Emotions and Decision Making in Public and NPO
3

The Moderating Role of Service Failure Magnitude Perceptions in Influencing the Impact of Caregiver Dissatisfaction on their Desire for Revenge and Negative WOM

Luisa Andreu, University of Valencia
Enrique Bigné, University of Valencia
Vicente Martínez-Tur, IDOCAL-University of Valencia
Anna S. Mattila, Pennsylvania State University
Carolina Moliner, IDOCAL-University of Valencia

This research examines managers’, employees’ and caregivers’ perceptions of the magnitude of the service failure in a context of non-profit organizations catering to people with mental disabilities. Building upon the social exchange, equity and prospect theory, we hypothesize that the gaps in the magnitude of the service failure play a moderating role on the negative effects of caregiver dissatisfaction and their desire for revenge and negative WOM behaviour. A group of 118 managers, 937 contact employees and 876 caregivers were surveyed. Hierarchical regression analyses support our hypotheses. Theoretical and managerial implications of the results are discussed.

Service Failure,Dissatisfaction,Word-Of-Mouth

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Marketing of Public and Non-Profit Organisations
Chair: Sigrid Bekmeier-Feuerhahn, Leuphana University of Lünebu
Session 1.8.2
Understanding Audiences and how to Persuade them in Public and NPO
1

Social Desirability and its Impact on Audience Research

Sigrid Bekmeier-Feuerhahn, Leuphana University of Lüneburg
Paula Maria Bögel, Leuphana University of Lüneburg
Andreas Heinen, Leuphana University of Lüneburg



Social desirability bias (SD bias) describes research participants' tendency to adapt response behavior to perceived social norms. SD bias can affect the validity of studies. However, as of yet, researchers have barely addressed SD bias by studying fine and performing arts as part of cultural sector research. This study provides the first empirical evidence for high trait desirability (TD) in the cultural sector and the existence of a resulting SD bias. In addition, it shows that SD bias affected audience inclination to positive response in the cultural sector.

Social Desirability Bias,Trait Desirability,Audience Research

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Marketing of Public and Non-Profit Organisations
Chair: Sigrid Bekmeier-Feuerhahn, Leuphana University of Lünebu
Session 1.8.2
Understanding Audiences and how to Persuade them in Public and NPO
2

Eliciting Consumer Decision-Making in Health Care - A Qualitative Study on Hospital Choice Behavior

Sophia Fischer, Dresden University of Technology
Sebastian Gurtner, Dresden University of Technology
Ines Weinhold, Dresden University of Technology



During the last decade, the traditional paternalistic approach to decisions in the realm of health care has been progressively replaced by the understanding of patients as sovereign consumers of medical services. However, patients’ decision strategies with regard to hospital choice are barely explored. This study fills this gap by developing a comprehensive, behavior-oriented hospital choice model. Based on an exploratory, qualitative approach, the model links relevant situational and patient-related factors with key strategies in the hospital choice process. Finally, the derived propositions complete the framework and highlight further research potential.

Decision-Making,Health Care,Hospital Choice

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Marketing of Public and Non-Profit Organisations
Chair: Sigrid Bekmeier-Feuerhahn, Leuphana University of Lünebu
Session 1.8.2
Understanding Audiences and how to Persuade them in Public and NPO
3

“No Goal Conflict!” Using Experience Design in Museums to Achieve Marketing Objectives in Combination with their Institutional Objectives

Nadine Ober-Heilig, Lueneburg University
Sigrid Bekmeier-Feuerhahn, Lueneburg University




The survival of museums in the leisure market is challenged by a growing experience economy. However, many still refrain from strategic experiential marketing strategies because they fear to contradict their objectives as educational institutions. In our study we analyse the effects of an experiential museum design on both marketing objectives and non-profit objectives of museums. In an experiment we tested the effects of an experiential versus a non-experiential museum design on visitors and non-visitors using computer simulations. The results of this study show a positive impact of the experiential design on both types of museum objectives. As a conclusion museums can use strategic experiential design to improve both their market and societal position.

Experiential Marketing,Museum Marketing,Audience Development

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Marketing of Public and Non-Profit Organisations
Chair: Sigrid Bekmeier-Feuerhahn, Leuphana University of Lünebu
Session 1.8.2
Understanding Audiences and how to Persuade them in Public and NPO
4

An S-D Logic Based Communication Strategy to Inform New Zealand Women of Zero Alcohol in Pregnancy

Mathew Parackal, University of Otago
Sherly Parackal, School of Population Health, The University of Auckland




Effective communication of messages is integral to achieve social changes. Commonly used tools are mass media but they are expensive. Within the marketing literature there is movement towards service as the dominant logic popularly referred to as S-D Logic. In this paper the results of a study that aimed to identify network partners to communicate “zero alcohol in pregnancy” is presented and discussed in the light of the S-D Logic context. Thirteen information sources specific to the target audience were subjected to factor analysis, which produced four categories (health care providers, electronic media, conventional media and public services). The paper suggests the network partners to be employed to communicate messages to the target audience, in the context of S-D Logic.

S-Dlogic,Communication,Alcohol

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Peeter Verlegh, University of Amsterdam
Session 2.1.5
Promotion
1

Under Which Mood and Deal Proneness Conditions Do Price Promotions Really Lead to High Purchase Intentions?

Laura Massera, University of Fribourg
Silke Bambauer-Sachse, University of Fribourg




This study examines effects of consumers’ mood and deal proneness on purchase intentions for price promotions with different saving formats. For less deal prone consumers, positive mood and “% off” elicit higher purchase intentions. For highly deal prone consumers, positive mood produces higher purchase intentions independently of the saving format.

Promotion,Mood,Purchase

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Peeter Verlegh, University of Amsterdam
Session 2.1.5
Promotion
2

Collectible Free Gifts Programs as Promotional Measures in Retailing

Sascha Daniel Sohn, Kaiserslautern Technical University
Stephan Roth, Kaiserslautern Technical University




Promotional program effectiveness relies on its design. We examine the design of a new promotional program observed in the retail industry, called a collectible free gift program, in which collectible reward points are replaced by uncertain non-economic incentives. The main objective is to examine its characteristics, impact on consumer behavior, and retailers’ objectives. Specifically, we examine the empirical findings on design elements, building a conceptual framework and provide guidelines for further research on the design of promotional programs.

Promotions,Collecting,Retail

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Peeter Verlegh, University of Amsterdam
Session 2.1.5
Promotion
3

The Long-Term Impact of Sales Promotions on Customer Equity

Herbert Casteran, EM Strasbourg Business School
Polymeros Chrysochou, Aarhus University
Meyer-Waarden, EM Strasbourg Business School, HuManiS & University Toulouse 1, CRM CNRS



Sales promotions’ effectiveness for short-term sales is proven. However, for long-term sales, possible adverse effects have been suggested. To bridge this gap, we apply stochastic models (BG/NBD model) in 74 packaged good categories of a Danish consumer panel and measure the cumulated long-term effects of promotions at the customer portfolio level by computing purchase frequencies, attrition and customer equity. Promotions have a mitigated impact: while the effect on purchase frequencies is overall positive, the impact on retention and lifetime duration is only positive in half of the categories. Finally, the effect on customer equity is positive in 62% and negative in 38% of the product categories analyzed.

Customer Equity,Promotions,Customer Lifetime Value

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Peeter Verlegh, University of Amsterdam
Session 2.1.5
Promotion
4

If "Advertising Attracts Dummies", Could It Be Bad to Advertise? Exploring How the Third-Person Effect Impacts Consumer Reactions to Information that a Brand Will Advertise

John Karsberg, Stockholm School of Economics
Micael Dahlén, Stockholm School of Economics
Nina Åkestam, Stockholm School of Economics



This paper builds on the third-person effect (TPE) to test whether consumers expect that advertising will attract "others" that are less smart and sophisticated than them, and thus react negatively to information that a brand advertises. Testing this notion in an experiment, we find that information about a brands’ intentions to advertise indeed has a negative effect on the image of the consumer of the brand, which in turn has a negative impact on brand evaluations. We hereby extend the research on TPE to include also the effects of non-controversial advertising.

Third-Person Effect,Advertising,Advertising Effects

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Claudiu Dimofte, San Diego State University
Session 2.1.6
Sponsorship
1

Memory Effects of Past Sponsorships

Alexander Edeling, University of Cologne
Stefan Hattula, University of Stuttgart
Torsten Bornemann, University of Stuttgart



Despite considerable interest in the long-term effects of sponsorship, few studies examine the ongoing effects when sponsorships have expired. This article fills this research gap by developing and empirically testing a conceptual model that shows (1) the time-lagged attitudinal benefits of the recall of a past sponsorship and (2) the antecedents determining this recall. Using primary (survey; n = 271) and secondary data from German professional soccer, the analysis shows that the present recall of a past sponsorship has a positive impact on the attitude toward the sponsor’s brand—an important precursor of actual buying behavior. In addition, this research finds that management (e.g., duration of the engagement), individual and group (e.g., perceived fit between the past sponsor’s brand and the sponsored object), and market factors (e.g., number of follow-up sponsors) determine the present recall of a past sponsorship.

Sponsorship,Recall,Attitude

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Claudiu Dimofte, San Diego State University
Session 2.1.6
Sponsorship
2

Sponsorship and Ambush Marketing Effectiveness: a Field-Experimental Analysis of Print and Online Advertisements

Regina Viola Frey, German Graduate School of Management & Law





With rising sponsorship expenditures every year, marketing practice has an essential need for information of sponsorship effectiveness. Traditional sponsorship is becoming increasingly threatened by creative ambush marketers seeking to position themselves as official sponsors, however, without paying license fees. We analyze print and online campaign effectiveness in the surroundings of the FIFA Women’s Soccer World Championship and the UEFA European Championship in two field-experimental studies. Applying MANOVA and regression analyses, our findings yield heterogeneous findings in terms of brand attitude, sponsorship awareness, word-of-mouth and brand equity for print and online advertisements; suggesting that sponsors not necessarily outperform ambush marketers.

Sponsorship,Ambush Marketing,Marketing Effectiveness

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Claudiu Dimofte, San Diego State University
Session 2.1.6
Sponsorship
3

The Development of an Integrated Corporate Communication Scale: Validation and Reliability Assessment

Lucia Porcu, University of Granada
Salvador Del Barrio Garcia , University of Granada
Philip J. Kitchen, ESC Rennes School of Business



This paper aims to conceptualise Integrated Corporate Communication (ICC) as a multidimensional concept and to develop and validate a scale for its measurement. Based on an extensive literature review and a Delphi study, ICC is defined, four dimensions are identified (namely, tactical consistency, interactivity, stakeholder-centred strategic focus and organisational alignment) and a 25-item scale is developed. To test the proposed scale, data were collected via an online questionnaire survey to top managers in the Spanish tourism industry. The findings proved the reliability and validity of the proposed ICC scale, providing a valuable instrument for future research.

Integrated Corporate Communication,Delphi Method,Scale Validation

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Claudiu Dimofte, San Diego State University
Session 2.1.6
Sponsorship
4

How Employees’ Distance to Headquarter Affects the Influence of Internal Vs. External Communication on Employee Behavior

Sven Henkel, University of St. Gallen
Dennis Herhausen, University of St.Gallen/Institute of Marketing
Philipp Scharfenberger, University of St.Gallen/Center for Customer Insight



This study examines the effect of internal and external communication on commitment and brand behavior of employees. The authors propose that distance to headquarter moderates the impact of internal and external communications, so that the positive relationship for internal (external) communication is stronger for employees in roles that are more (less) proximal to the headquarter. Results from an empirical study of 1,291 employees from 6 subsidiaries of a large industrial organization support this notion. The findings of this study suggest that external communication is important to increase employees’ commitment and their willingness to behave on brand.

Employee Communication,Distance To Headquarter,Construal-Level Theory

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Linda Hollebeek, University of Waikato
Session 2.1.7
Organizations and Relations
1

Antecedents of Community Engagement in Online Loyalty Programs

Ana María Gutiérrez, University of Valladolid
Rebeca San José, University of Valladolid
Angel Domínguez, University of Valladolid



Engagement is a concept which is currently proving to be of enormous interest in both academic as well as business fields. In addition to providing further insights into the notion, or more specifically into community engagement, the current work is pioneering in applying the concept to the analysis of online loyalty programs (OLP), considered as brand communities. The research pinpoint the main antecedents and seeking to gain a greater understanding of how OLP work, knowledge of which remains scarce. Findings show that program identification, program satisfaction, and consumer perceived benefits of OLP are antecedents of community engagement. Among the typology of perceived benefits, hedonic and social symbolic benefits prove significant.

Online Loyalty Program,Community Engagement,Consumer Identification

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Linda Hollebeek, University of Waikato
Session 2.1.7
Organizations and Relations
3

It's not the Quality but the Effort Itself that Matters? Advertiser Effort and Consumer Perceptions of Equitable Exchange

Stefan Szugalski, Stockholm School of Economics
Lars Bergkvist, Nottingham University Business School China
Micael Dahlén, Stockholm School of Economics



Introducing the concept of equitable exchange to advertising, this paper tests the popular notion that "advertising needs to earn consumers' attention". Drawing on equity theory, we hypothesize that higher advertiser effort generates more favorable ad attitudes, brand attitudes and purchase intentions. Two experiments support the hypotheses, and find that the positive impact of advertiser effort increases with consumer effort to take part of the advertising.

Equitable Exchange,Marketing Signals,Advertiser Effort

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Marcelo Royo-Vela, University of Valencia
Session 2.1.8
Frames & Perceptions
1

Effects of Advertising for Future Products on the Consumer’s Attitude

Faidon Sylvestros, University of Valencia
Marcelo Royo Vela, University of Valencia




This exploratory work focuses on the consumer’s responses to the effect of advertising for preannounced products and tries to extend the model of Dahlen et al., (2011) by analysing the possible effects for the brand, the consumer’s attitude towards the brand and the predetermined outcomes that this influence can have on the consumer’s buying intention. It is expected that advertising for future products will create more uncertainty than advertising for current products and that consumers will show anticipation, thus demonstrating a greater willingness to purchase the future product than the current one. Two experiments were conducted to measure different brand evaluations. One experiment was related to the advertising campaign implemented before a new car was launched on the market and the other was designed to detect the possible effect of product availability over the consumer’s anticipation and evaluation.

Adeffects,Attitude,Brand

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Marcelo Royo-Vela, University of Valencia
Session 2.1.8
Frames & Perceptions
2

Same Message, Different Ad Framing: The Moderating Role of Need for Cognition

Lars Erling Olsen, Oslo School of Management
Samuelsen Bendik Meling, BI Norwegian Business School
Tarje Gaustad, Oslo School of Management



Advertisers choose among different ad claims when framing messages about new entrants. This paper proposes that different claims evoke different memory structures (semantic vs. episodic), and that these structures require different types of cognitive processing (system 1 vs. system 2). Two experiments, using need for cognition as a dispositional trait of level of cognitive processing, show that experiential claims are less favorably evaluated when consumers engage in system 2 processing, than when consumers engage in system 1 processing. The better performance of functional claims, may managerially implicate that experiential claims can potentially be a dangerous positioning strategy.

Semantic And Episodic Memory,System 1 & 2,Need For Cognition

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Marcelo Royo-Vela, University of Valencia
Session 2.1.8
Frames & Perceptions
3

Comparative Advertising’s Novelty and Persuasion Outcomes: Insights from France, United Kingdom and United States

Dan Alex Petrovici, Kent Business School
Christian Dianoux, University of Lorraine - Cerefige
John Ford, Old Dominion University
Jean-Luc Herrmann, University of Lorraine - Cerefige
Jeryl Whitelock, Bradford University

Considering that novelty increases information processing but decreases perceived believability as well, we conducted a cross-national study in three countries (France, UK, and USA) to examine the effects of two comparative ad formats (Direct and Indirect Comparative Advertising) on persuasion outcomes for an unknown brand. Based on a representative sample of 789 “real” French, UK and USA consumers, the results mainly support the role of comparative advertising’s novelty on persuasion outcomes and call for a deeper understanding of both perceptions of comparative advertising in different countries as well as the cultural differences able to be at work at an individual level.

Comparative Advertising,Novelty,Information Processing

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Marcelo Royo-Vela, University of Valencia
Session 2.1.8
Frames & Perceptions
4

Phonetic Symbolism Effects on Consumer Evaluations of Spokesperson Characteristics

Jasmina Ilicic, The University of Adelaide
Stacey Baxter, The University of Newcastle
Alicia Perkins, The University of Newcastle



This study investigates the effect of phonetic symbolism on consumer evaluations of abstract spokesperson characteristics, namely, friendliness, masculinity and attractiveness. Two between subjects experiments were undertaken to test the effects of the vowel sound contained in a spokesperson name (front vs. back) on perceived spokesperson characteristics. Whilst results are in some aspects inconsistent with prior psycholinguistic research, results across both experiments showed consistent psycholinguistic effects when spokesperson name was considered. Results showed that consumers perceived a spokesperson with a name containing a back vowel sound as friendlier, more masculine and more attractive.

Phonetic Symbolism,Spokesperson Name,Attractiveness

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Marketing Theory and New Paradigms
Chair: Ajay Kohli, Georgia Tech University
Session 2.10.1
New Perspectives on Markets and Marketing
1

Co-Creation: A Case Study of a ‘focused’ Business Model Approach

Pennie Frow, The University of Sydney
Adrian Payne, University of New South Wales




This paper explores focused co-creation, one of three broad business model approaches to co-creation. The paper briefly outlines these approaches and then examines focused co-creation in Burberry, the luxury fashion brand. Recently, this company has focused on engaging employees and customers in co-promoting and co-experiencing value in unique ways, blurring the distinction between physical and digital platforms. The result is a transformation of this business. The case illustrates the advantages of a granular assessment of co-creation and the importance of adopting an appropriate business model approach that relates to specific co-creation goals.

Co-Creation,Burberry,Case

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Marketing Theory and New Paradigms
Chair: Ajay Kohli, Georgia Tech University
Session 2.10.1
New Perspectives on Markets and Marketing
2

Stakeholder Marketing: Theoretical Foundations and Consequences for Marketing Capabilities

Bas Hillebrand, Radboud University
Paul Driessen, Radboud University Nijmegen
Oliver Koll, University of Innsbruck



Building on multiplicity theory, this conceptual paper presents a revised theoretical perspective on the marketing discipline, contrasts it with the prevailing perspective on marketing, and shows why the revised perspective better fits the current reality. It argues that the core of this perspective consists of viewing stakeholder environments as continuous multiplicities rather than discrete multiplicities. The revised perspective explains three transitions in marketing practice: (1) exchange becomes complex rather than being dyadic, (2) tension between stakeholder interests becomes explicit rather than staying implicit, and (3) control over marketing activities becomes dispersed rather than centralized. The paper conceptualizes specific capabilities that are required for each transition.

Stakeholders,Theory,Capabilities

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Marketing Theory and New Paradigms
Chair: Ajay Kohli, Georgia Tech University
Session 2.10.1
New Perspectives on Markets and Marketing
3

Is Entrepreneurial Marketing a New Paradigm? Understanding Better the Entrepreneurial Versus Managerial Marketing Decision Making Processes

Elisabete Sampaio De Sá, Minho University / School of Economics and Management
Minoo Farhangmehr, Universiy of Minho
José Carlos Pinho, University of Minho



This paper intends to contribute to the development of the entrepreneurial marketing theory. It proposes shifting the focus from the marketing activities themselves to what shapes them, that is, the marketing decision making process, which is forged by both the entrepreneurial context, and its contingencies, and the mindset of the entrepreneur. Based on such conceptualization, the paper draws on the cognitive approach to entrepreneurship, particularly the effectuation theory. Results from the research, using the Critical Incident Technique to explore entrepreneurial decisions, present the entrepreneurial marketing process, showing the differences from the managerial marketing process. Results suggest that entrepreneurial and managerial marketing rely on different decision making logics and that they can work in a complementary manner or alternatively in different circumstances.

Entrepreneurial,Marketing,Effectuation

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Marketing Theory and New Paradigms
Chair: Ajay Kohli, Georgia Tech University
Session 2.10.1
New Perspectives on Markets and Marketing
4

Stakeholder Theory as a Mean to Understand Customer Orientation if there is more than One Customer Population

Sebastian Alexander Schubach, University of Passau
Nicole Jasmin Heß, University of Passau
Jan Hendrik Schumann, University of Passau



Although the concept of customer orientation has been widely discussed among marketing academics, existing studies do not account for settings where there is more than one customer population. We address this gap and explore customer orientation of free e-service providers as they operate in two- or multi-sided markets and hence have to serve the needs of two or more customer populations. Referring to stakeholder theory, we predict customer orientation on the basis of management’s perception of the salience of each of these customer populations.

Customer Orientation,Multi-Sided Markets,Stakeholder Theory

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Modelling and Marketing Analytics
Chair: Paul Marx, University of Siegen
Session 2.11.5
Mining Big Databases
1

Visualizing Asymmetric Competition Among Over 1,000 Products Using Big Search Data

Daniel Ringel, Goethe University

Bernd Skiera, Goethe University Frankfurt



Understanding competition is essential for every firm. Unfortunately, information on who competes with whom is scarce. Traditional research approaches such as surveys and panels are time consuming, expensive, and not applicable to markets with large numbers of consumer durables. Big search data from websites, however, reveal which products consumers consider to be "competing" alternatives. We propose a new model that uses big search data and combines methods of multiple research disciplines to analyze and visualize asymmetric competition in durable categories containing more than a thousand products. We demonstrate our method by analyzing and visualizing asymmetric competition among 1,124 LED-TVs. We externally validate our findings with actual market shares and find that product- and price comparison site data provide higher external validity than data from Google and Amazon.

Competition,Big Data,Mapping

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Modelling and Marketing Analytics
Chair: Paul Marx, University of Siegen
Session 2.11.5
Mining Big Databases
2

Eliciting Attribute-Based Preferences From Scarce Big Datasets

Paul Marx, University of Siegen
Andre Marchand, University of Muenster




The ability to estimate attribute-based preferences of individual customers is crucial for a wide variety of marketing tasks. However, the scarcity of Big Data arrays prohibits such estimation in many cases. In this paper, we present a novel method that allows eliciting individuals’ part-worths towards large number of product attributes from scarce big datasets by means of statistical techniques. Empirical tests on two real-world big data sets provide evidence that our estimates are reasonably accurate for predictions of future customer preferences.

Consumer Preferences,Big Data,Recommender Systems

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Modelling and Marketing Analytics
Chair: Paul Marx, University of Siegen
Session 2.11.5
Mining Big Databases
4

Experiments with Crossed Effects in Marketing-Communication Research: What Do the Experimental Settings Tell Us?

Jose Tummers, Leuven University College
Kim Janssens, Leuven University College




Experimental designs often are analyzed using a Repeated Measures ANOVA. Yet, this method does not suffice to describe all variance in a crossed effects experiment. Responses are generated from the same subjects and simultaneously those responses will be collected for the same stimuli, exposing the independence of the observations and the generalizability of the results. The current study contributes to this methodological concern by reanalyzing data from previous research with a mixed-effects model with ‘subject’ and ‘stimulus’ as random effects. That model realizes a significantly improved descriptive and predictive power, unveiling a substantial effect of stimuli on the experimental outcome.

Experiment,Marketing-Communication,Mixed-Effects

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Guda Van Noort, University of Amsterdam
Session 2.12.5
Online branding and electronic word-of-mouth
1

The Moderating Role of Perceived Relationship Investment on the Dynamics of Identification, Satisfaction and Loyalty Towards Facebook Brand Pages

Chris Horbel, University of Southern Denmark
Brad Wilson, Rmit University / School of Media and Communication
Bastian Popp, University of Bayreuth/Department of Service Management



The recent expansion of new technologies offers many opportunities for brand building. This paper adds to the extant literature by investigating the determinants of the success of brand social network websites (BSN) indicated by the user’s loyalty towards the BSN. Using an online survey for sports fans and Facebook users we demonstrate that consumer-identification with BSN users, consumer-BSN identification, and satisfaction with a BSN significantly influences loyalty towards the BSN. It is confirmed that these relationships are moderated by the perceived level of a brand’s investment into the relationship.

Perceived Relationship Investment,Brand Social Network Website Loyalty,New Technologies

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Guda Van Noort, University of Amsterdam
Session 2.12.5
Online branding and electronic word-of-mouth
2

The Influence of E-WOM Characteristics on Online Repurchase Intention: the Mediating Role of Trust and Perceived Usefulness

Ana Utrillas, University of Saragossa
Jorge Matute, University of Saragossa
Yolanda Polo, University of Saragossa



With the expansion of Internet as a tool for exchanging information, companies include in their websites a virtual space to share information among users. This study explores the characteristics of consumers´ reviews (electronic word-of-mouth quantity, credibility and quality) as antecedents of customers’ online repurchase intentions. Specially, it proposes a model where trust on an online seller and perceived usefulness of a website mediate the influence of EWOM characteristics on repurchase intentions. To test this model, structural equation modeling is employed on a sample of 252 online customers. Results show that only EWOM quality has a positive direct effect on consumers’ repurchase intention while quantity has a negative influence. Perceived usefulness mediates the influence of all EWOM characteristics on online repurchase intention. EWOM credibility and quality also indirectly influence repurchase intentions through trust on the online vendor

Electronic Word-Of-Mouth,Online Repurchase Intentions.,Electronic Commerce

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Guda Van Noort, University of Amsterdam
Session 2.12.5
Online branding and electronic word-of-mouth
3

Branded Apps: Explaining the Effects of App Use on Brand Equity

Guda Van Noort, University of Amsterdam
Eva A. Van Reijmersdal, University of Amsterdam
Susan Hoogendoorn, University of Amsterdam



The aim was to examine a) whether interacting (vs not interacting) with branded apps influences consumer’s cognitive and affective brand equity, (b) which type of branded app (i.e., informational vs. entertainment) is more effective in doing so, and c) to what extend engagement and elaboration explain these effects. An experiment demonstrated that 1) interacting with a branded app enhances affective brand equity, 2) an entertainment app evoked higher levels of engagement, which in turn enhanced affective brand equity, and 3) an informational app evoked higher levels of elaboration, enhancing cognitive brand equity.

Branded Mobile Phone Apps,Brand Equity,Engagement

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Guda Van Noort, University of Amsterdam
Session 2.12.5
Online branding and electronic word-of-mouth
4

Evoking Imagery Through Advertising on a Smartphone

Diana Gavilan, Complutense University of Madrid
Maria Avello, Complutense University of Madrid
Carmen Abril, Complutense University of Madrid



The present research examines mental imagery elicited by advertising in the mobile medium. Using a factorial experimental design, we examine the influence of the type of message –SMS vs. MMS– and orientation strategy –informational vs. transformational– on mental imagery by means of its three dimensions: vividness, quantity and elaboration. Results show a greater impact of visual and transformational ads on vividness and elaboration, while SMS exerts a greater effect on the quantity dimension of mental imagery.

Mental Imagery,Sms And Mms,Informational And Transformational Ads

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Francisco Liébana-Cabanillas, University of Granada
Session 2.12.6
Marketing goes mobile
1

Mobile Value-Added Services - a Multidimensional Framework Relating Flanking Apps to a Core Service

Moritz Asche, Free University of Berlin
Henning Kreis, Freie Universität Berlin
Katrin Schipper, Freie Universität Berlin
Carolyn Seifert, Freie Universität Berlin


Mobile services (e.g. smartphone apps) have become an important instrument in company communication and are often introduced as a flanking service to a core service offering – namely a mobile value-added service. Empirical research, however, focuses to a large degree on the value perception of the mobile service itself, only while neglecting the relation of app and core service. Our paper tries to close this gap by examining this interaction with a special focus on users’ value perceptions. The development of an extended multidimensional framework of six value dimensions advances the literature. The results of different empirical studies, including a panel study, increases the understanding of how mobile value-added services influence a core service and clarifies the role of the newly introduced insurance value for smartphone apps.

Value-Added Service,Mobile Service,Multidimensional Framework

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Francisco Liébana-Cabanillas, University of Granada
Session 2.12.6
Marketing goes mobile
2

Mobility - Unveiling Essence and Value of Mobile Technology

Elvira Bolat, Bournemouth University





This paper aims to map distinctive mobile technology values. In doing so this paper uses empirical data given by users who engage with mobile technology on both personal and professional levels. Evolved grounded theory and value-focused thinking approach are applied to analyse twenty-eight in-depth interviews with SME managers representing the UK creative sector. This study provides insights into experiences of mobile technology use by outlining conditions that drive and slow down mobile technology adoption, motives in using mobile technology and set of functional, social epistemic, emotional values that distinguish mobile technology use from using stationary and fixed network information technologies.

Mobile Technology,Mobility,Grounded Theory

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Francisco Liébana-Cabanillas, University of Granada
Session 2.12.6
Marketing goes mobile
3

A Comparative Analysis of the Adoption of SMS, NFC and QR-Based Mobile Payment Systems

Francisco Liebana-Cabanillas, University of Granada
Iviane Ramos de Luna, Universidad de Granada
Francisco Montoro-Ríos, Universidad de Granada
Juan Sánchez-Fernández, Universidad de Granda
Francisco Muñoz-Leiva, Universidad de Granada

The rapid growth of mobile technology among the world's population has led many companies to attempt to exploit mobile devices as an additional sales tool. This study compares the factors that determine consumer acceptance of Short Message Service (SMS), Near Field Communication (NFC) and Quick Response (QR) mobile payment systems. The model used in our research applies the classic variables of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), as well as that of perceived security, a model derived from the review of the major relevant recent literature. The results achieved in this study demonstrate that there are differences in the factors that determine the acceptance of each of the systems, as well as the level of the intention to use.

Sms,Nfc,Qr

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Francisco Liébana-Cabanillas, University of Granada
Session 2.12.6
Marketing goes mobile
4

Modeling of the Acceptance of Mobile Payment Systems in Virtual Social Networks

Francisco Muñoz Leiva, University of Granada
Francisco Liébana-Cabanillas, University of Granada
Juan Sánchez-Fernández, University of Granada



Although mobile-related technologies are widely accepted in today’s society, mobile payment in Virtual Social Networks (VSN) is not among the most widely used mobile services. Throughout this paper analyzed the influence of e-word-of-mouth (eWOM) and the perceived risk in the intention of adopting a novel mobile payment system based on SMS through social networking. Empirical results demonstrate how social influences, through subjective norms, utility, attitude, as well as eWOM and the perceived risk, determine its adoption. Finally, the results obtained in this study reveal interesting implications for the diffusion of mobile payment systems in VSN.

Ewom,Perceived Risk,Mobile Payment

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Carmen Camarero, University of Valladolid
Session 2.12.7
Power of social media
1

Online Consumer Behavior in E-Stores and Social Networks: an Exploratory Approach for Apparel Retailing

Marta Frasquet, University of Valencia
Alejandro Mollá, University of Valencia
Eugenia Ruiz, University of Valencia
Enrique Navarro


Retailers need to examine consumer behavior in and out the store in order to take effective marketing decisions. Regarding the consumer behavior out the store, the interactions of consumers with the Internet through, for instance, social networks, are considered as a focus of attention by both academics and practitioners. While quantitative measures of online consumer behavior are commonly analyzed, qualitative analyses on the consumer activity are not frequently conducted. In this sense, the aim of this paper is to examine the availability and usefulness of qualitative indicators of online consumer behavior in e-stores and social networks, illustrating this review of the state-of-art with a case study based in the retail brands that belong to the Inditex Group.

Online,Retailing,Qualitative

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Carmen Camarero, University of Valladolid
Session 2.12.7
Power of social media
2

Consumer Reactions to Likes and Comments Received in Social Network Sites

Salvador Ruiz De Maya, Murcia University
Maria Sicilia, University of Murcia
Mariola Palazon, University of Murcia



Consumers increasingly post comments on brand profile pages and quite often they also get feedback either as likes or as comments to their posts from other consumers. In this research we analyze how the likes and comments people get as reactions to their posts have a significant impact on their attitudes and behaviors. Results show that the number of likes and the number of comments affect individuals differently. While the number of likes received increases social recognition and the intention to participate again, the number of comments received only affects social recognition. A second study shows that the position of the post significantly influences the intention to participate again.

Social Networks Sites,Social Recognition,Attitudes

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
New Technologies and E-Marketing
Chair: Carmen Camarero, University of Valladolid
Session 2.12.7
Power of social media
4

What Works in Facebook? Content Versus Relational Communication: a Study of Their Efficiency

Carmen Camarero, University of Valladolid
María José Garrido, University of Valladolid
Rebeca San José, University of Valladolid



Developments in the Internet over the last few decades years have led to changes in the role played by consumers vis-à-vis their exposure to communications. Despite the widespread inclusion of social networks by organizations, many of these are failing to taking full advantage of the opportunities afforded by these new relational instruments. Based on an international sample of fans pages in Facebook, we describe the strategies implemented developed and we conduct an empirical measure of their efficiency through a series of the Key Performance Indicators commonly used by online marketing practitioners. The results provide the main conclusions both for the theory, which remains in its infancy regarding the study and understanding of communication efficiency in social networks, as well as for business practice in the area of content management and relations management strategies.

Communication,Facebook,Efficiency

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Bjoern Asmussen, Oxford Brookes University
Session 2.14.5
Employees and Brands
1

Three Consequential Aspects of Internal Branding: Exploratory Research

Katja Terglav, University of Ljubljana
Robert Kase, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics
Maja Konecnik Ruzzier, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics



The purpose of the paper is to unify three consequential aspects of internal branding and provide research propositions by using exploratory research. Defined as a process that enables to deliver desired brand promise, internal branding is found to impact three employee-related consequences: cognitive, attitudinal and behavioural. The paper significantly contributes to the field since previous research mainly explored one or two aspects at once. Customer-interface employees are invited to participate in the study. Results imply that internal branding influences employee brand knowledge, employee brand commitment and their brand-building behaviour, therefore further empirical verification is recommended.

Internal Branding,Employees,Consequences

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Bjoern Asmussen, Oxford Brookes University
Session 2.14.5
Employees and Brands
2

Cognitive and Affective Antecedents of Brand Citizenship Behavior

Rico Piehler, Bremen University
Ceridwyn King, Temple University
Christoph Burmann, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany



With brand consistent employee behavior like brand citizenship behavior (BCB) being the coveted outcome of internal brand management (IBM) mostly affective antecedents like brand commitment and brand identification have been promoted in literature. Brand understanding as cognitive antecedent has only been rarely considered. Therefore, the authors develop a conceptual IBM model which contains affective and cognitive antecedents of BCB and empirically validate it in a cross sectional study in the service sector. The study indicates that BCB of employees is not only a result of commonly investigated affective antecedents but also a result of rarely considered brand understanding as cognitive antecedent.

Internal Brand Management,Brand Citizenship Behavior,Brand Understanding

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Bjoern Asmussen, Oxford Brookes University
Session 2.14.5
Employees and Brands
3

Carried Away by the Underdog Brand: Source Advantages in Brand Biographies

Ali Tezer, Concordia University
Onur Bodur, Concordia University
Bianca Grohmann, Concordia University



This research examines underdog brand biographies—narratives on brands’ passion and determination leading to success despite the lack of resources (Paharia et al., 2011)—and shows positive effects of underdog biographies when the brand is the source of the narrative, but not when an independent third-party is the source of the narrative. Further, this research finds evidence for a mediating role of narrative transportation: Exposed to an underdog brand biography from a brand source, consumers are carried away by the narrative and experience narrative persuasion, resulting in higher purchase intentions. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

Branding,Underdog Brand Biographies,Narrative Transportation

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Francesca Dall'Olmo Riley, Kingston University
Session 2.14.6
Brand Architecture and Brand Extensions
1

Managing Brand Architecture – The Impact of Corporate and Product Brands

Christoph Burmann, Bremen University
Christopher Kanitz, University of Bremen
Tilo Halaszovich, University of Bremen
Michael Schade, University of Bremen


The complexity of brand portfolios has considerably increased within the last few years. This raises important challenges for many corporations. In this context, the current state of brand architecture research lacks answering issues of high importance. Thus, the authors develop an approach to empirically investigate the perceived brand architecture of different companies. With the help of a large dataset of 2,949 cases the paper investigates the behavioral relevance of corporate and product brands in customers’ point of view. As a result, it was shown that corporate brands as well as product brands have a behavioral relevance across industries. Differences in the perception of the brand architecture can especially be explained by the perceived scope of the product and service portfolio the corporate brand.

Branding,Brand Architecture,Brand Image

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Francesca Dall'Olmo Riley, Kingston University
Session 2.14.6
Brand Architecture and Brand Extensions
2

Brand Extensions Threat: Counter Extensions

Bruno Busacca, Bocconi University
Giulia Miniero, SDA Bocconi School of Management
Giuseppe Bertoli, Università di Brescia



Among the risks of a brand extension strategy, there is the one to stimulate a reaction of counter extension. This would frustrate any positive result obtained by the brand extension. The literature showed that co branding is one way in which brand extension strategies can reduce the risk of counter extensions. The paper presents the results of a research aimed at analyzing consumers’ evaluation of a new product launched in response to an earlier extension occurred through a co branding agreement between brands with different degrees of perceptual fit.

Brand Extension,Co Branding,Counter Extension

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Francesca Dall'Olmo Riley, Kingston University
Session 2.14.6
Brand Architecture and Brand Extensions
3

The Broader Boundaries: The Importance of Service-Specific Associations in Service Brand Extensions

Radu-Mihai Dimitriu, Cranfield University
Luk Warlop, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven / BI Norwegian Business School




The idea that successful brand extensions require a high similarity between the brand and the extension category pervades current research. In two experiments we document that service brands can extend as successfully to low and high similarity service categories thanks to service-specific associations. In the first experiment we keep the extension category constant and show that similarity drives evaluations for product-to-service extensions but not for service-to-service extensions. In the second experiment we keep the parent brand constant and show that similarity drives evaluations for service-to-product extensions but not for service-to-service extensions, however only for participants taking enough processing time.

Brand,Extension,Service

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Carmen Lages, Nova Business School of Economics
Session 2.14.7
Responses to Brands
1

Brand Lovers and Brand Haters: Product-Harm Crises as Antecedent of Brand Dispersion

Sarah Busse, RWTH Aachen University
Malte Brettel, RWTH Aachen University




This study examines the influence of recalls on the degree of polarization among consumers into brand haters and brand lovers. Analyses multi-industry product recalls in 2008-2011 together with daily customer brand evaluations show that brand dispersion increases in the days after the recall. Furthermore, the study finds that the portion of brand haters increases in the days after a product-harm crisis and that in situations where the average evaluation does not suffer, dispersion increases more. The increasing heterogeneity poses a threat to firms because the more inconsistent the brand image among customers, the more it reduces a firm’s brand equity.

Brand Dispersion,Product Recalls,Brand Equity

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Carmen Lages, Nova Business School of Economics
Session 2.14.7
Responses to Brands
2

Complaining vs. Expressive Writing in Frustrating Product Experiences

Giulia Miniero, University of Lugano
Michael Gibbert, Università della Svizzera Italiana-USI




The present study investigates the relative superiority of complaining vs. a new tool for airing frustrations with products, the expressive writing paradigm (Pennebacker 1997). Across two experimental between-subject studies, we find support that consumers who write their disappointment expressively have an higher product evaluation compared to customers that do not express their disappointment (Study 1). Moreover, as Study 2 shows, writing expressively brings to an higher product evaluation than complaint writing.

Complaint,Expressive- Writing,Product- Evaluation

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Carmen Lages, Nova Business School of Economics
Session 2.14.7
Responses to Brands
3

Religious Responses to “selling Happiness”: Negative Consequences for Attitude Toward the Ad and Attitude Toward the Brand

Jamel Khenfer, Aix-Marseille III / IAE Graduate Management School
Steven Shepherd, Duke University
Aaron C. Kay, Duke University



Intuitively, appealing to people’s desire to be happy should be universally well received by consumers, or at least not harmful to consumer’s perceptions of a brand; almost everyone wants to be happy and can relate to the desire to be happy. This article show that this is not necessarily true. Promising happiness in advertisement can cause negative attitude toward the ad and toward the advertised brand for religious people. We further demonstrate via a moderated mediation analysis conducted on a sample of 273 American adults that religious response to “selling happiness” is bounded by whether individuals’ religiosity is intrinsically or extrinsically motivated.

Attitude Toward The Ad,Religion,Moderated Mediation

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Jamel Khenfer, Aix-Marseille III / IAE Graduate
Session 2.14.8
Products and Consumers
1

Predicting the Innovator

Malcolm Wright, Massey University
Phil Stern, Exeter Business School
Margaret Faulkner, Ehrenberg-Bass Institute, University of South Australia
Roman Konopka, Massey University


Who are the innovative customers for new products? Despite considerable research in this area, a striking characteristic of innovators was identified over 35 years ago. In work since often overlooked, Taylor (1977) found innovators tended to be heavy buyers of the parent category. This controversial result has major implications for both theory and practice yet has not, to our knowledge, been replicated. We therefore examine the extent to which heavy buyers dominate the innovator segment, adopting a research design that overcomes some of the limitations of Taylor’s original study, and we also extend Taylor’s work by examining heavy buyers in general rather than in a ‘category specific way’. Using a unique database we examine the behaviour of British General Practitioners in prescribing radically new drugs and me-too later entrants over an eighteen year period. We find regular replicable patterns of innovation among heavy category buyers, although they vary according to the order of entry

Segmentation,Innovator,Panel Data

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Jamel Khenfer, Aix-Marseille III / IAE Graduate
Session 2.14.8
Products and Consumers
2

The Lag-Users Method: A New Source of Idea Generation for New Products

Luis Filipe Lages, Nova Business School of Economics
Sara Jahanmir, Nova School of Business and Economics




Laggards are the last to adopt a product. Despite significant research on user-led innovation, prior literature ignores laggards’ impact on innovation. Companies cannot afford ignoring the input of around 16-22% of users. In this paper, we develop the Lag-User Method. Through five studies with 71 teams in three different countries, we apply the method to different technologies and services. We present our findings to three focus groups with 28 executives to get managerial insights about the Lag-User Method. Empirical findings reveal that lag-users are useful in idea generation and new product development. They have different perceptions of user-friendly products as well as different needs and expectations from other user categories. Thus, we propose that by involving lag-users in developing new products, firms can obtain a wider range of perspectives to improve the effectiveness of NPD.

Laggard,Npd,Method

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Jamel Khenfer, Aix-Marseille III / IAE Graduate
Session 2.14.8
Products and Consumers
3

Consumer Responses to Structural and Informational Components of Eco-Designed Packaging: The Role of Environmental Concern

Lise Magnier, Lille 1 University / IAE Graduate Management School
Dominique Crié, Lille 1 University / IAE Graduate Management School
Jan Schoormans, TU Delft



Manufacturers are increasingly designing more sustainable packaging and consumers tend to evaluate sustainable initiatives positively. However, ecological stimuli can sometimes have a negative impact on consumers’ evaluations. Across three studies, we seek to provide guidance on consumers’ responses to eco-designed packaging. Study 1 consists of an exploratory study using the ZMET technique. The structural, graphical and informational components of eco-designed packaging are outlined, and ambivalent responses of consumers to eco-designed packaging are determined. Study 2 tests the influence of the interaction between structural condition (conventional vs. eco-designed) of the package and environmental concern (EC) on aesthetic evaluation and purchase intention. Study 3 tests the influence of the interaction between structural condition, informational condition (absent vs. present) and EC on the same dependent variables. The results of this study give important insights to enhance acceptation of new eco-designed packaging developments.

Eco-Designed Packaging,Environmental Concern,Aesthetic Appeal

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Hanna Schramm-Klein, University of Siegen
Session 2.16.5
Impact of Digital Technologies
1

Multiplicity of Electronic Distribution Channels: a Consumer-Based Overview and Categorisation

Gerhard Wagner, University of Siegen / Chair of Marketing
Julian Kellner, University of Göttingen / Chair of Retailing
Hanna Schramm-Klein, University of Siegen / Chair of Marketing
Sascha Steinmann, University of Siegen / Chair of Marketing
Bernhard Swoboda, Trier University / Chair for Marketing and Retailing

The range of Internet-enabled devices that shoppers use to search for product information or to purchase online expands. Based on the findings of a first qualitative study, we provide an overview of devices which are predominantly used for online shopping. By conducting an additional online-survey (N = 502) we verify our findings and investigate which devices are perceived as similar or different to uncover relevant e-channel categories. For our analysis, we perform two complementary approaches: (1) a visual mapping of consumers’ perception space using MDS and (2) an analysis of consumer’s evaluation using Property Fitting. The results indicate that consumer use in particular 12 types of devices to shop online. In the consumers’ perception these devices constitute four categories of electronic distribution channels (e-channels) which comprise relevant implications for research and marketing practice.

Online Retailing,E-Commerce,E-Channels

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Hanna Schramm-Klein, University of Siegen
Session 2.16.5
Impact of Digital Technologies
2

The More the Merrier? The Effects of Additional Information Through the Use of Mobile Apps on Purchase Decisions

Gunnar Mau, University of Siegen
Sascha Steinmann, University of Siegen
Gerhard Wagner, University of Siegen
Hanna Schramm-Klein, University of Siegen


We investigate the impact of additional product information generated by the use of mobile apps on purchase decisions. We propose that additional product information provided by mobile apps influences the objective and subjective quality of consumers' purchase decision positively and reduces consumer confusion while it negatively influences decision efficiency. The results of four experimental studies show that the use of mobile apps positively influences the subjective quality of the decision only under specific conditions, but negatively impacts decision efficiency and also increases consumer confusion. These effects are not only triggered by the use of mobile apps in general, but also depend on several environmental conditions and on the amount of additional product information provided by mobile apps.

Mobile Devices,Decision Efficiency,Consumer Confusion

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Hanna Schramm-Klein, University of Siegen
Session 2.16.5
Impact of Digital Technologies
3

Is Technology Moderating the Influence of Store Equity on Behavioral Intentions? Evidence from Spanish Retailing

Gloria Berenguer Contri, University of Valencia
Gloria Berenguer-Contri, University of Valencia
Irene Gil-Saura, University of Valencia
Mª Eugenia Ruiz-Molina, University of Valencia


In today's competitive environment in which retailers operate, store equity is seen as a key differentiating factor. However, to date there is little research on the dimensionality of the store equity and its influence on consumer behavioral intentions. Additionally, one might consider the way in which the technology implemented by the retailer can influence store equity and its relations with other constructs. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze the relationship between store equity and behavioral intentions, and the influence of information and communication technology on this relation. From a survey of 820 customers of store chains, we find evidence in favor of the positive influence of store equity on consumer behavioral intentions towards the retailer and the role of technology as a moderator in this relationship.

Brand-Equity,Behavioral-Intentions,Ict

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Hanna Schramm-Klein, University of Siegen
Session 2.16.5
Impact of Digital Technologies
4

Do Retailers Benefit from Deploying Customer Analytics?

Frank Germann, University of Notre Dame
Gary Lilien, Pennsylvania State University
Lars Fiedler, Mc Kinsey & Company,INC.



Prior research has documented a general positive relationship between the deployment of customer analytics and firm performance. In this research we focus on the retailing industry, an industry characterized by tight margins, a situation that results in careful scrutiny of all business investments. Using survey data from 418 top managers based in the Americas, Europe Middle East and Africa (EMEA) and Asia, we show that of the 8 industries in the study, firms in the retail industry have the most to gain from deploying customer analytics. However, we also find that not only do retailers not perceive this potential gain, they also do not invest in customer analytics at an economically appropriate level. Thus there is a gap between perception and reality concerning the potential for customer analytics in the retail industry that has both theoretical and practical implications.

Customer Analytics,Marketing Roi,Retailing

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Peter C. Verhoef, University of Groningen
Session 2.16.6
Store Choice & Customer Loyalty
1

Low Expenditures or High Savings: What Drives Store Choice?

Soulimane Yajjou, Tilburg University
Ernst Osinga, Tilburg University/Marketing




Existing literature on store choice assumes that price promotions increase a store’s attractiveness by lowering the basket price. In this paper we argue that price promotions, by creating hedonic and utilitarian shopping value, have a direct effect on utility above and beyond the effect that comes from lower basket prices. We apply a store choice model to temporal household-level data and show that anticipated savings, the total value of discounts that a consumer expects to obtain at a store, is an important driver of store choice. Our results imply that a Hi-Lo strategy is preferred over an EDLP strategy.

Promotions,Savings,Store Choice

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Peter C. Verhoef, University of Groningen
Session 2.16.6
Store Choice & Customer Loyalty
2

The Impact of Consumer Confidence on the Relationships Between Store Attribute Perceptions and Store Satisfaction and Store Loyalty

Auke Hunneman, BI Norwegian Business School
Peter Verhoef, University of Groningen
Laurens Sloot, University of Groningen



For retailer managers it is crucial to understand the relationship between consumers’ store attribute evaluations and customer satisfaction and how this relationship changes over time depending on the business cycle. This study investigates this complex relationship using a large dataset with attribute perceptions and store satisfaction measures for all grocery chains in the Netherlands in the period 2009–2012. Our findings indicate that retailers should not overemphasize the importance of a favorable price image in times of low consumer confidence (CC): our study shows that the relationship between service attributes and customer satisfaction is stronger in periods with low CC.

Satisfaction,Store Attributes,Retailing

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Peter C. Verhoef, University of Groningen
Session 2.16.6
Store Choice & Customer Loyalty
3

Reward Redemption Effects in a Loyalty Program when Customers Choose how much and when to Redeem

Matilda Dorotic, BI Norwegian Business School
Peter C. Verhoef, University of Groningen
Tammo H.A. Bijmolt, University of Groningen
Dennis Fok, Erasmus University


Redemption of loyalty program (LP) rewards may have an impact on LP members’ behavior, particularly on purchase behavior before and after redeeming a reward. However, little is known about the interplay between members’ purchase and redemption behavior when members are not pressured with points expiration and they choose themselves when and how much to redeem. Analyzing behavior of 3094 members in such an LP, we find that the mere decision to redeem a reward significantly enhances purchase behavior before and after redemption even when companies do not impose any expiration deadlines. The decision to redeem a reward may enhance motivation in the LP, which enhances purchase behavior (an effect we termed redemption momentum). The length of LP membership, number of direct mailings, age and income moderate the reward redemption effects.

Loyalty Programs,Reward Redemption,Endogeneity

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Peter C. Verhoef, University of Groningen
Session 2.16.6
Store Choice & Customer Loyalty
4

Analysing the Fulfilment of Service Recovery Paradox in Retailing

Teresa Fayos Gardó, University of Valencia
Beatriz Moliner, University of Valencia
Mª Eugenia Ruiz, University of Valencia



The literature dealing with the Service Recovery Paradox (SRP) is vast, but some results are confusing and contradictory. This paper aims at verifying the compliance of the SRP in the context of retailing. Considering a sample of consumers that experienced a failure in the service delivered by a retailer and are very satisfied with the solution provided by the store employee, we test the existence of significant differences in the customer satisfaction levels with the store before and after experiencing the problem. As a result, we observed that the compliance of the SRP is highly related with the consumer socio-demographic characteristics as well as the shopping experience.

Satisfaction,Complaint,Retailing

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Hanna Schramm-Klein, University of Siegen
Session 2.16.7
Store Image
1

The Color of Money - Towards the Influence of Payment Methods and Basket Price Judgments on the Overall Store Price Image

Werner Kunz, University of Massachusetts
Alexander Mrozek, EBS Business School
Tomas Falk, EBS Business School
Jeroen Schepers, Technische University Eindhoven


Prior research has investigated the effect of cash and card payments on consumer behavior, but the growing trend of payment with a mobile device hasn’t been considered in the literature so fare. This article represents one of the first studies that considers mobile as an alternative payment method and investigate how the ‘checkout’ phase affect the shoppers’ overall price image of retail stores (OSPI). Results from our studies show that the ‘checkout’ phase is the ‘moment of truth’ for shoppers judging OSPI. In particular, favorable comparisons of basket prices to shoppers’ mental budgets trigger lower store price perceptions. We investigate the effects of cash, card, and mobile payments and show that the less transparent a payment method, the lower OSPI judgments of shoppers. Subsequently, these results have major implications for retailers aiming to lower their OSPI in customers’ minds.

Overall Store Price Image,Payment Method,Shopping Basket

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Hanna Schramm-Klein, University of Siegen
Session 2.16.7
Store Image
2

Linear and Non-linear Effects of Price and Non-price Related Antecedents on Retailers’ Price Image

Antonio Kraljevic, Coburg FH
Felix Weispfenning, Coburg FH




Retailers’ pricing has become one of the most important topics for profitability as they are operating on razor-thin margins. A key problem is to understand how customers perceive retailers’ pricing and non-pricing activities and how these perceptions are formed to a price image. This study examines the effect of several antecedents on the formation of customers’ price image. This empirical study (812 face-to-face interviews) identifies significant price-related antecedents and significant non price-related antecedents of consumers’ price image. Moreover, non-linear effects of interacting antecedents on the formation of consumers’ price image are identified and discussed. The results of this study imply that by actively managing the antecedents, a retailer might be able to lever customers’ perception of the price image without necessarily sacrificing profitability.

Image,Price,Retailing

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Hanna Schramm-Klein, University of Siegen
Session 2.16.7
Store Image
3

It is all about the Perceived Consistency of the Retail Marketing Instruments when Creating a Strong Retail Brand

Frank Haelsig, HTW Saarland - University of Applied Sciences
Bernhard Swoboda, University of Trier
Hanna Schramm-Klein, University of Siegen
Dirk Morschett, University of Fribourg


This article addresses how the perceived consistency of different retailer attributes affects customer-based retail brand equity when considering retailers as brands. It investigates the antecedents of a strong retail brand. A model is developed which includes the impact of central dimensions of the perception of retailer attributes and the effect of their perceived consistency on customer-based retail brand equity. The model is applied to five retail sectors (grocery, clothing, DIY, electronics, and furniture retailing) so that some generalizable conclusions can be drawn. Structural equation modeling is used to test the model, based on a sample of 3,000 consumers. The results show that, from the consumers' perspective, the perceived consistency has a stronger effect on retail brand equity than each of the individual dimensions. Hence, this demonstrates that it is more important from the consumers' perspective for a retailer to establish harmony and continuity between all aspects of its marketing than to attempt to achieve a particularly positive perception of a single instrument.

Consistency Of Retail Marketing Instruments,Customer-Based Retail Brand Equity,Store Loyalty

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Sara Rosengren, Stockholm School of Economics
Session 2.16.8
Store Environment /Atmospherics
1

Which Dimensions of the Store Environment Irritate Customers? Evidence from three Retail Settings

Nathalie Demoulin, IESEG School of Management
Kim Willems, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Gilbert Swinnen, Hasselt University



Most previous studies on store atmospherics have focused on their impact on positive emotional customer responses. However, less pleasurable shopping experiences may also generate negative affective responses. This research investigates the effect of shopping environment on customers’ irritation level and satisfaction across three retail sectors. We survey customers after a shopping experience in either a grocery- (n = 150), fashion- (n = 183), or electrical appliances retail stores (n = 156). Our results demonstrate that design and social aspects of the store are the most irritating. Customers’ irritation decreases their satisfaction. However, these effects depend on the retail sector considered.

Irritation,Store Environment,Cross-Sectorial Comparison

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Sara Rosengren, Stockholm School of Economics
Session 2.16.8
Store Environment /Atmospherics
2

Does Creativity Matter for Store Window Displays?

Fredrik Lange, Stockholm School of Economics
Sara Rosengren, Stockholm School of Economics
Angelica Blom, Stockholm School of Economics



Store window displays are highly important for retailers since they have the potential to draw traffic to the stores. Still, little is known about their influence on consumers. In this study we investigate the impact of store window creativity on consumer perceptions. The results of two experimental studies indicate that store window creativity positively affects attitudes towards the display and the items in it, willingness to pay for the items on display as well as attitudes towards the store and store entering intentions. This implies that retailers might profit from using a creative store window design.

Creativity,Retailing,Perceptions

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Sara Rosengren, Stockholm School of Economics
Session 2.16.8
Store Environment /Atmospherics
3

Aesthetics: Luxury or Necessity? Patronage Decisions in Conditions of Severe Economic Crisis

Evangelia Chatzopoulou, University of Piraeus
Markos - Marios Tsogas, University of Piraeus




The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of store’s aesthetics on consumers' emotions and how these emotions, in turn, influence patronage intention through the moderating effect of crisis and store’s familiarity, by comparing this impact on privileged and under-privileged area. The research took place in six supermarkets from which three of them are located in up market area and the other three in down market area. The findings showed that the aesthetics have an almost equal positive effect on the customer’s emotional state and on their patronage intention for both areas. The store familiarity is indicated as moderator between emotions and patronage intentions for under-privileged area and as determinant indicator for privileged area. It should be noted though, that even if the privileged area were not much affected by crisis, they would like to go for shopping in a pleasant environment like the consumers from the underprivileged area, who regard it as a necessity.

Retailing,Crisis,Aesthetics

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Sara Rosengren, Stockholm School of Economics
Session 2.16.8
Store Environment /Atmospherics
4

Bargain Effectiveness in Differentiated Store Environments: When a Good Deal Goes Bad

Lieve Douce, Hasselt University
Kim Willems, Vrije Universiteit Brussel - Hasselt University
Wim Janssens, Hasselt University



Differentiation is necessary to survive in today’s homogeneous retail landscape. One way to differentiate is by making use of store atmospherics. However, other marketing tools such as offering a bargain might conflict with this store differentiation strategy. In study 1, an experimental consumer lab survey (n = 50) confirms that store environment differentiation generates positive consumer affect, evaluations and approach behaviour. In study 2, a 2 x 2 between-subjects lab experiment (n = 121) furthermore demonstrates that in a highly differentiated store the presence of bargains negatively affects consumer reactions, supporting the assumption that bargains do not fit with a premium strategy.

Store Atmospherics,Store Differentiation,Bargain

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Sales Management and Personal Selling
Chair: Michel Van der Borgh, Eindhoven University of Technology
Session 2.17.1
Stress and Dysfunctional Outcomes in Sales
1

The Beneficial Effect of Resilience on Sales Performance in the Presence of Role Ambiguity

Sebastian Pyka, Chemnitz University of Technology
Steffen Jahn, Georg-August-University Goettingen
Cornelia Zanger, Chemnitz University of Technology



Personal sellers oftentimes experience ambiguity-based role stress, which can diminish sales performance. The process that leads to this adverse effect, however, is not fully understood. We propose a framework that regards a seller’s personal accomplishment and work engagement as mediators between role ambiguity and sales performance. In addition we consider the psychological resource of resilience that may buffer the negative consequences of ambiguity-based role stress. Results from a survey among 142 personal sellers general support our framework and underscore the viability of resilience and its beneficial effect in adverse workplace situations.

Resilience,Role Ambiguity,Sales Performance

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Sales Management and Personal Selling
Chair: Michel Van der Borgh, Eindhoven University of Technology
Session 2.17.1
Stress and Dysfunctional Outcomes in Sales
2

Examining the Conditions under which Salespeople Experience Frustration at Work 

Alexander Leischnig, University of Bamberg
Bjoern Ivens, University of Bamberg
Stephan Henneberg, Queen Mary University of London



Frustration in the sales force has been identified as one of the primary inhibitors of sales performance. Drawing on role theory and social identity theory, the authors examine how dimensions of role stress and of social conflict combine to workplace constellations that result in sales force frustration. Based on a sample of 118 salespeople, the authors analyze the data using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA)—an analytic method prolific for analyzing higher-order interactions. The results from this study show that there exist multiple configurations of factors leading to frustration in the sales force. Knowledge of these causal patterns helps sales managers detect workplace frustrators and develop strategies to diminish these conditions.

Sales Force Frustration,Role Stress,Social Conflict

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Sales Management and Personal Selling
Chair: Michel Van der Borgh, Eindhoven University of Technology
Session 2.17.1
Stress and Dysfunctional Outcomes in Sales
3

Dysfunctional Sales Force Turnover: The Effect of Occupational Concentration and Pay Dispersion

Alireza Keshavarz Maman, HEC Paris





Organizations try to recruit and retain the high performing salespeople not just because they are the main value generators but also because they may destroy value by dysfunctional turnover and mobility is to a competitor. Drawing on human capital and social network theories I introduce and test the effect of two isolating factors of labor forces i.e. pay dispersion and regional concentration of salespeople on the dysfunctional turnover of salespeople. Analysis of the data on the entire population of sales organizations in France in 2004 shows that high performing salespeople’s turnover decisions are affected by the interaction of concentration of salespeople in a region with the organization’s compensation dispersion relative to its competitors.

Dysfunctional Turnover,Pay Dispersion,Regional Concentration

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Sales Management and Personal Selling
Chair: Sergio Román, Universidad de Murcia
Session 2.17.2
Proactivity and Adaptability in Sales
1

Salesperson Proactivity: Antecedents and Consequences

Concepción Varela-Neira, University of Santiago de Compostela
Carmen Otero-Neira, University of Vigo
Teresa García-Garazo, University of Santiago de Compostela
Carmen Cerrato-Salas, University of Santiago de Compostela


This study focuses on salesperson’s proactive behavior. Salesperson proactive behavior refers to making things happen, anticipating and preventing problems, and seizing opportunities. This paper presents a comprehensive model of the antecedents and consequences of salesperson proactive behavior. This model proposes sales manager servant leadership and salesperson customer orientation as antecedents of salesperson proactive behavior. Moreover, it posits that proactive behavior influences salesperson performance ratings. Finally, the model includes salesperson political skill as a moderating factor on the proactive behavior-performance appraisal relationship. The study uses multisource (sales manager and salesperson perceptions) and multilevel data to improve understanding of the antecedents and consequences of salesperson proactive behavior. Specifically, the participants included in this research comprised 83 supervisors and 181 salespeople working at 83 enterprises in a range of industries, including both production and service industries.

Performance,Proactivity,Leadership

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Sales Management and Personal Selling
Chair: Sergio Román, Universidad de Murcia
Session 2.17.2
Proactivity and Adaptability in Sales
2

A Model of Salespeople’s Adaptive Behaviour

Carmen Otero-Neira, University of Vigo
Emilio Ruzo, University of Santiago de Compostela
Jose A. Varela, University of Santiago de Compostela



This study focuses on salesperson’s adaptive behaviour and turnover intention. Salesperson adaptive behaviour is relevant to firm growth and survival. In many industries, the response to changes in the environment is strongly influenced by the extent to which salespeople support the proposed changes and adapt to them. A comprehensive model of the determinants of salesperson adaptive behaviour is proposed. This model identifies salesperson customer orientation as a distal antecedent of salesperson outcomes (turnover intention and adaptive behaviour); additionally it considers emotional exhaustion and organizational identification as proximal antecedents. This paper tests the model using multisource data, gathered from 209 salespeople and their respective supervisors. Results support the hypotheses posited.

Salespeople Performance,,Adaptive Behaviour,Turnover Intention

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Sales Management and Personal Selling
Chair: Sergio Román, Universidad de Murcia
Session 2.17.2
Proactivity and Adaptability in Sales
3

Relational Consequences of Adaptive Selling in a Business-to-Business Context

Sergio Román, Murcia University
Pedro Juan Martín Castejón, Murcia University
Rocío Rodríguez, Murcia University



Despite today’s emphasis on relationship selling the research on the consequences of adaptive selling has employed primarily sales related criteria (e.g., sales, quota). This is the first study to analyze the influence of adaptive selling on several customer relational outcomes in a business-to-business context and to analyze the moderating influence of the hierarchical position of the buyer. Data obtained from a survey on organizational buyers from a wide range of industries indicate that adaptive selling significantly increases satisfaction with the salesperson, satisfaction with the supplier and loyalty with the supplier while controlling for length of the buyer-seller relationship. Also, these effects are stronger when the contact person at the buying company is the general manager as opposed to the purchasing manager

Adaptive Selling,Business-To-Business Markets,Relational Outcomes

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Sales Management and Personal Selling
Chair: Selime Sezgin, Istanbul Bilgi University
Session 2.17.3
Sales Potpourri
1

Tracking the Evolution of Theory on Marketing-Sales Relationship: Past, Present and Future 

Konstantinos Lionakis, Athens University of Economics and Business
George Avlonitis, Athens University of Economics and Business




Marketing-Sales relationship is an important field of study as these two units are considered the customer-centric team. Scholarly, it was originally addressed in the 90s while today the relevant theory has its stance in the broader interdepartmental interactions literature. The purpose of this paper is to present a critical synthesis of the Marketing-Sales relationship theory and advance implications for future research and managers. A thorough search resulted in the identification of 13 conceptual and 30 empirical papers. Key arguments, methods and findings are classified under thematic areas and discussed critically. From the review it is evident that extant theory has addressed important aspects of this field; yet, various unanswered issues are identified. This paper provides the first systematic review of the extant literature on this topic and proposes a future research agenda.

Marketing-Sales Relationship,Systematic Review,-

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Sales Management and Personal Selling
Chair: Selime Sezgin, Istanbul Bilgi University
Session 2.17.3
Sales Potpourri
2

Moral Equity and Ethical Climate: Relevance to the Relational Selling Behavior and Sales Performance 

Selma Kadic-Maglajlic, University of Sarajevo
Irena Vida, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics
Milena Micevski, Loughborough University, School of Business and Economics
Nathaniel Boso, Leeds University Business School


In this paper we address two ethical issues relevant to the relational selling behavior and its outcomes: ethical climate within the company and moral equity of individual salesperson. Using primary data from the new EU member country and structural equation modeling analysis we prove that ethical climate increases sales performance, in such a way that its impact on sales performance is mediated by adaptive selling behavior. Moreover, we also show how moral equity negatively moderates the strength of the relationship between adaptive selling and sales performance.

Ethical Climate,Moral Equity,Adaptive Selling

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Sales Management and Personal Selling
Chair: Selime Sezgin, Istanbul Bilgi University
Session 2.17.3
Sales Potpourri
3

Shift of Consumer Attitude towards the Brand by Means of Heider’s Balance Theory 

Theo Lieven, University of St. Gallen





Consumer attitudes toward a brand are largely determined by the behavior of the sales staff. This on-brand behavior has been interpreted as a dyadic relationship between customer and brand. This article extends the analysis towards a triad customer-brand-salesperson, based on Heider's Balance Theory. An extensive empirical study confirms the importance of the on-brand behavior, in addition to the positive outcomes of the sales encounter. If consumer brand attitude is positive before the sales experience, a negative out-come of the sales encounter results in a less negative attitude than in the case of a negative predetermination, even with positive experiences.

Attitude Towards The Brand,On-Brand Behavior,Sales Encounter

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Sales Management and Personal Selling
Chair: Selime Sezgin, Istanbul Bilgi University
Session 2.17.3
Sales Potpourri
4

Implementing an Ambidextrous Sales Strategy at the Front Line: An Internal Marketing Perspective 

Michel Van Der Borgh, Eindhoven University of Technology
Ad De Jong, Eindhoven University of Technology
Edwin Nijssen, Eindhoven University of Technology
Michael Ahearne, University of Houston


Ambidextrous sales strategies, wherein managers pursue the concurrent sale of new and existing products, often fail at the front line. A proposed internal marketing perspective accounts for the role of two vertical relational mechanisms (manager ambidexterity and salesperson organizational identification) that transfer an ambidextrous strategy to the front line. The findings demonstrate that both mechanisms have crucial roles in the implementation of an ambidextrous selling strategy. They enhance salespeople’s proactive selling of new and existing products; in addition, they interact, such that the effect of manager ambidexterity depends on organizational identification. In turn, this two-part empirical study links salespeople’s proactive selling of new and existing products to their commensurate forms of objective performance and shows that combining the behaviors does not impair performance.

Ambidexterity,Internal Marketing,Sales

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Kalliopi Chatzipanagioti, University of Glasgow
Session 2.18.5
Emotions and Customer (Dis)Satisfaction
1

The Role of Emotional Contagion in Service Encounters

Verena Hofmann, Innsbruck University
Nicola Stokburger-Sauer, University of Innsbruck




Although the role of emotions receives increasing attention in service research, hitherto literature has not focused on the construct of emotional contagion, which is understood as a customer’s catching and mimicking of a service employee’s display of emotions. Drawing on interaction theories, this study examines the construction and relevance of emotional contagion in service interactions. To test the hypotheses, a field-study in the retail industry was conducted. The results show that emotional contagion positively influences customer satisfaction. The study thus helps to broaden our understanding of emotional contagion in service encounters. Implications for marketing management and research are discussed.

Emotional Contagion,Service Interactions,Facial Action Coding System (facs)

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Kalliopi Chatzipanagioti, University of Glasgow
Session 2.18.5
Emotions and Customer (Dis)Satisfaction
2

Tell It in the Newspaper: Sharing Critical Incidents through WOM

Jenniina Halkoaho, University of Vaasa





This study takes a look at critical incidents occurred in service encounters as experienced by the customers. This is done by analyzing word-of-mouth communications on a forum for public opinion sharing in a newspaper. Majority of the messages sent for the discussion forum concern single events that consumers have experienced in local stores, hospitals or other service scapes. Therefore, it is fruitful to investigate the writings in detail as they represent critical incidents that have exceeded the customers’ zone of tolerance one way or the other. The findings show that in the light of triggering WOM, personal touch of service people become more critical than other elements of service encounters (product, process, and physical evidence).

Word-Of-Mouth,Critical Incident,Service Encounter

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Kalliopi Chatzipanagioti, University of Glasgow
Session 2.18.5
Emotions and Customer (Dis)Satisfaction
3

Supporting Customers at Success and Failure: Does It Make Difference for Novice and More Experienced Customers?

Mohamed Sobhy Temerak, Cairo University





This research differentiates between social support received by experienced and novice service users at success and failure times of the service experience and examines their differential effects on goal attainment, satisfaction and citizenship behaviors. A total of 308 valid responses were collected by the means of a snowball sample and analyzed by the means of multi-group analysis. The findings demonstrate the importance of social support provided at success time, especially for novices compared to experienced users in developing their perceptions of goal attainment. Goal attainment was found to be a stronger driver of customer satisfaction for experienced than novices. Also, customers' satisfaction was the key driver of the citizenship behaviors for novices, whereas goal attainment was the main driver of citizenship behaviors for experienced customers.

Social Support,Customer Citizenship Behavior,Goal Attainment

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Kalliopi Chatzipanagioti, University of Glasgow
Session 2.18.5
Emotions and Customer (Dis)Satisfaction
4

Asymmetric Effects of Causal Attribution in Service Encounters

Carmen Maria Albrecht, University of Mannheim
Stefan Hattula, University of Stuttgart
Torsten Bornemann, University of Stuttgart
Wayne Hoyer, University of Texas


Recent service research has paid increasing attention to the effect that emotions displayed by service employees have on customer hedonic well-being. However, fairly little is known about contextual factors determining such emotional contagion. Relying on attribution theory, this research proposes that customers’ attributions for the causes of emotions displayed by employees affect the extent of emotional contagion. Results of an online-experiment (n = 172) in a typical customer service interaction show that attribution effects differ between negative and positive emotional displays of employees. With regard to negative emotional display, emotional contagion is less likely when customers can attribute an employee’s negative affect to uncontrollable causes. In contrast, positive emotional contagion effects are stronger when customers can attribute positive affect of the frontline employee to uncontrollable causes

Emotional Contagion,Attribution Theory,Experimental Design

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Lisa Scribner, University of North Carolina Wilmington
Session 2.18.6
Internal Marketing I
1

Contextual Factors and the Goal Orientations of Service Employees: The Role of Marketing Controls

Carlos M. P. Sousa, Durham University/Business School
Filipe Coelho, University of Coimbra
Luiza Rodrigues, University of Coimbra



Past research has identified several personal characteristics with an influence on goal orientations. However, the contextual variables that influence employees’ goal orientations remain unspecified. The purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of marketing controls over the goal orientations of frontline employees. Our results indicate that both formal, and informal control mechanisms, are related to employee goal orientations. In particular, the results highlight the role of informal controls in influencing goal orientations. Managers may thus resort to control mechanisms to influence the goal orientations of frontline service employees in a manner that is consistent with organizational objectives.

Goal Orientations,Control Mechanisms,Frontline Employees

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Lisa Scribner, University of North Carolina Wilmington
Session 2.18.6
Internal Marketing I
2

A Multilevel Investigation into the Impact of Servicescapes on the Service Encounter

Kalipso Karantinou, Athens University of Economics and Business
Kostas Kaminakis, Athens University of Economics and Business
Spiros Gounaris, University of Strathclyde Business School



The majority of studies on servicescapes focus on the customer side neglecting the important impact on the employee side. Furthermore, no study has ever empirically validated the notion that service atmospherics can enhance or constrain the employee-customer interaction. This is the first study to introduce a multilevel framework examining the impact of servicescapes on both sides of the service encounter and their interaction and involving data collection from both customers and employees. The SEM and HLM analyses demonstrate that customers’ interaction quality perceptions can be both directly and indirectly affected by servicescape perceptions. In this context, employees’ organizational citizenship behaviors impact is examined and found to be affected by servicescape perceptions.

Servicescapes,Hierarchical,Ocb

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Lisa Scribner, University of North Carolina Wilmington
Session 2.18.6
Internal Marketing I
3

Conditions for Service Customization: A Configurational Perspective on Employee Adaptive Behaviors

Kati Kasper-Brauer, Freiberg University of Technology
Alexander Leischnig, University of Bamberg
Uwe Messer, University of Bamberg



The provision of customized products and services is a major challenge for firms in various industries. This article aims to improve understanding of workplace conditions stimulating frontline service employees to perform adaptive behaviors that help address the specific needs and wishes of customers. Based on a sample 228 employees from an insurance company, the authors examine how work-related and employee-related factors combine to form workplace configurations that stimulate adaptive behaviors. The findings from this study reveal that there exist several equally effective configurations of factors for enhancing employee adaptive behaviors. Knowledge of these causal patterns of factors helps service managers develop employment strategies and workplace designs to enhance the level of customization and, in turn, favorable customer experiences.

Customization,Employee Adaptive Behavior,Fsqca

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Martina G. Gallarza, University of Valencia
Session 2.18.7
Internal Marketing II
1

The Role of Perceived Employee Emotional Competence in Healthcare Services

Marcel Van Birgelen, Radboud University
Handan Sen, Radboud University, Institute for Management Research
Allard Van Riel, Radboud University, Institute for Management Research
Michelle Wijnen, Radboud University, Institute for Management Research
Janjaap Semeijn, Maastricht University, School of Business and Economics

The purpose of this study is to examine how healthcare clients’ perceptions of employee emotional competence (EEC), influences satisfaction and loyalty, specifically the role of rapport and trust in this mechanism. This is a rather neglected topic in services research, which may contribute to better theorizing the role of perceived EEC. An empirical quantitative analysis reveals that perceived EEC leads to more satisfied and loyal clients in healthcare services. Additionally, rapport and trust were found to have a central role in leading to satisfaction and trust. Moreover, rapport was found to influence loyalty through trust, which reveals the mechanism through which rapport operates. Healthcare service managers may benefit from higher levels of emotional competences of their employees, and thus build rapport and trust in healthcare services.

Employee Emotional Competence,Relationship Marketing,Healthcare

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Martina G. Gallarza, University of Valencia
Session 2.18.7
Internal Marketing II
2

Taking Sides - How Service Frontline Employees Choose Between Their Company and Their Customers in Role Conflict Situations

Debra Hanning, TU Dortmund University
Hartmut Holzmüller, TU Dortmund University




Role conflict is a highly salient theme in the literature on service frontline employees. Despite this, we still know little about how frontline employees decide which side to favor when faced with contradictory expectations by customers and their own organization. This research aims to develop a better understanding of this decision process. Using a qualitative approach, we find support for the five approaches to dealing with role conflict discussed in the literature as well as a sixth way. We identify several factors influencing this decision. We present limitations of our study as well as an outlook for further research.

Role Conflict,Servie Frontline Employees,Qualitative Research

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Martina G. Gallarza, University of Valencia
Session 2.18.7
Internal Marketing II
3

Value Co-creation in Online Healthcare Communities: The Self- and Other-Focus in Online Postings

Sarah Van Oerle, University of Antwerp
Annouk Lievens, University of Antwerp
Dominik Mahr, Maastricht University



Health care customers increasingly use digital environments to take an active role in the creation of an optimal service experience. In online communities, patients share ideas, information and experiences and thereby co-create value on two levels: cure (i.e. cognitive) and care (i.e. affective) based value. Since the focus of attention shifts between “the self” and “the other” in online communication, this study investigates the impact of adopting a self- and other-focused perspective on the co-creation of cure and care based value. The findings suggest that adopting a self-focused perspective increases the co-creation of cure based value but decreases care based value. Furthermore, an other-focused perspective has no significant impact on the co-creation of cure based value, but has a positive impact on the co-creation of care based value.

Value Co-Creation,Online Healthcare Communities,Text Mining

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Martina G. Gallarza, University of Valencia
Session 2.18.7
Internal Marketing II
4

Price Complexity in Tariff Choice Situations: An Investigation of Service Type

Steffen Wuertz, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)
Martin Klarmann, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Information Systems and Marketing (IISM), Marketing & Sales Research Group




In this paper we describe three experiments comparing customer responses to complex prices between four services: banking, flights, health clubs, and mobile communication. The first study analyzes the effect of price complexity on tariff preference for simplicity. The second study analyzes the effect of price ending regularity, number of price elements, and arithmetic difficulty on perceived price complexity. The third study analyzes the effect of price complexity on willingness to pay. Price complexity consistently reduces the appeal of a tariff at the same price. Service type strongly moderates the links leading to and from perceived price complexity.

Price Complexity,Service Type,Tariff Preference

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Jesús García-Madariaga, Universidad Complutense Madrid
Session 2.18.8
Cognitive and Emotional Approaches in Service Delivery
1

Emotional Attachment Influence on Service Perception among Opinion Leaders. Evidence from an Art Venue

Javier Flores-Zamora, ICN Business School
Jesus Garcia-Madariaga, Universidad Complutense de Madrid




Conventional opinion leadership theory has traditionally dealt with the characteristics of an opinion leader and the domains where this behavior appears. Art organizations agree on the importance of having influentials among their customer base to prescribe their services. This study empirically tests the moderation effect of opinion leadership on the perceived quality, overall satisfaction during the service experience. A survey-based questionnaire among 409 patrons was conducted to test the relationships, using SEM. Two segments of low and high opinion leaders were obtained to compare their differences. Strong opinion leaders give more importance to their satisfaction level as an antecedent of their future intentions. Emotional attachment act as a filter that influences the service attribute perception.

Opinion Leadership,Services Marketing,Emotions

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Jesús García-Madariaga, Universidad Complutense Madrid
Session 2.18.8
Cognitive and Emotional Approaches in Service Delivery
2

Perceived Servicescapes: A Configural View & Implications for Behavioural Intentions

Christos Koritos, Alba Graduate Business School at the American College of Greece
Spiros Gounaris, University of Strathclyde
Kalipso Karantinou, Athens University of Economics & Business



The extant literature in services provides ample evidence of the significant impact servicescapes have on consumers’ emotions, perceptions, and behaviour. Nonetheless, many empirical studies have produced quite controversial findings on the structure of the relationships hampering thus a clear interpretation of how the elements comprising servicescapes interplay to produce this effect. The present paper seeks to address this issue through a large survey investigation. Based on the results from this investigation we show that the configural approach in explaining how consumers perceive the elements of the service environment is more appropriate than any other conceptualisation. Moreover, building on relevant theoretical arguments, the findings also produce a clearer picture regarding the structure of the relationships between environmental stimulation, emotional reactions, and cognitive evaluations.

Servicescape,Consumers,Configural Approach

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Jesús García-Madariaga, Universidad Complutense Madrid
Session 2.18.8
Cognitive and Emotional Approaches in Service Delivery
3

Service Fairness, Trustworthiness, and Trust: An Empirical Examination

Sanjit Kumar Roy, The University of Western Australia
Dr. Walfried M. Lassar, Florida International University - College of Business
Balwant Samra, Coventry University



Theorists and empirical researchers in marketing and other fields suggest that fairness is important in developing buyer-seller relationships. However, the construct of fairness is still opaque and relatively under-developed. Researchers still do not adequately understand the connection between service fairness and trust. Hence the purpose of this study is to provide a more developed social exchange model which examines the differential effects of different fairness dimensions on trustworthiness, customers’ trust, and other behavioural outcomes i.e. word-of-mouth and loyalty. Data were collected from consumers of financial services and analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Findings of the study will go a long way in helping service providers in building fairness in the business model and nurturing relationship quality amongst consumers and fuelling positive word-of-mouth, and loyalty.

Service Fairness,Trustworthiness,Financial Services

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Jesús García-Madariaga, Universidad Complutense Madrid
Session 2.18.8
Cognitive and Emotional Approaches in Service Delivery
4

What Ties Customers to Hedonic and Utilitarian Services?

Anastasia Stathopoulou, London University / Birkbeck College
George Balabanis, Cass Business School, City University




This paper develops a new conceptual framework with a complete set of relational bonds and examines how these bonds together with subjective norms and perceived difficulty influence repurchase intentions based on different service types. Drawing on existing literature and longitudinal qualitative evidence from 60 in-depth interviews a new theoretical approach is proposed which was then tested in a large scale survey study in the context of hedonic and utilitarian services. Based on the results, the drivers of repurchase intentions can be classified into three categories: 1) universal drivers of repurchase intentions that transcend service categories, 2) service specific bonds and 3) inconsequential relational bonds. These results provide guidance to managers to differentiate customer relationship strategies according to the specific service context.

Services,Bonds,Intentions

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Social Media
Chair: William Rand, University of Maryland
Session 2.19.1
Consumer Use of the Social Media
1

Effects of Owned and Earned Social Media and Paid Traditional Media on Consumer Mind-Set Metrics and Acquisition

Lisette De Vries, University of Groningen/Faculty of Economics and Business
Sonja Gensler, Marketing Center Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster
Peter S.H. Leeflang, University of Groningen



This research provides insights into the effects of both owned (i.e., firm’s social media platform) and earned social media (i.e., consumer-initiated interactions with the firm on other social media sites) as well as paid traditional media on consumer mind-set metrics and acquisition. Results of the vector autoregressive model show that owned and earned social media explain a substantial part of the mind-set metrics and acquisition. Owned social media affects awareness in the short-term. Earned social media affects awareness and acquisition in the short- and the long-term, and preference in the long-term. Firms can directly influence owned and earned social media by their traditional media expenditures. Results also show that owned and earned social media and paid traditional media are both complements and substitutes.

Social Media,Paid, Owned, And Earned Media,Marketing Effectiveness

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Social Media
Chair: William Rand, University of Maryland
Session 2.19.1
Consumer Use of the Social Media
2

Will My Followers Tweet? Predicting Twitter Engagement Using Machine Learning

William Rand, University of Maryland - College Park
David Darmon, University of Maryland
Jared Sylvester, University of Maryland
Michelle Girvan, University of Maryland


Brand managers who are able to understand how social media is evolving first have an advantage over those who are slower to understand what their followers are doing. Despite the advantage such knowledge would bring, user predictability in social media is not well understood. We use two different machine learning methods to model the behavior of 15,000 users on the basis of their past behavior during a sevenweek period. We demonstrate that the behavior of users on Twitter can be well modeled as processes with self-feedback. We also explore how different structural segments of Twitter users behave differently. These insights would enable differential targeting schemes that might increase customer engagement with disparate groups of Twitter followers.

Social Media,Twitter,Prediction

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Social Media
Chair: William Rand, University of Maryland
Session 2.19.1
Consumer Use of the Social Media
3

Social Media Capability of Exporting Firms and Its Effects on Performance

Josep Rialp, Autonomous University of Barcelona
Mª Del Carmen Alarcon, Autonomous University of Barcelona
Alex Rialp, Autonomous University of Barcelona



Social media applications like Twitter, Facebook or LinkedIn have gained importance not only for private people but also for businesses. Our objective is to examine the extent to which the exporting firms’ capability of using social media applications for dealing with foreign customers actually impacts on their performance. We propose and test that this capability influences directly on the intention to use social media and indirectly through the attitude. Then the intention to use these applications influences on final usage, and this usage augments final performance. This research helps visualize the process through which an exporting firm’s social media capability impacts on its performance.

Social-Media,Exporting-Companies,Social-Media-Deployment-Capabilities

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Social Media
Chair: William Rand, University of Maryland
Session 2.19.1
Consumer Use of the Social Media
4

The Effect of the Content of Offline Advertising on Online Sentiment

Seshadri Tirunillai, University of Houston
Gerard Tellis, University of Southern California




User generated content (UGC) is an important diagnostic of consumer response. This study analyzes the impact of offline television advertising on UGC using a dynamic difference in difference approach, using five metrics of chatter before and during a brand advertising campaign. Results indicate chatter volume of the target firm to be the most important metric influenced by advertising; the volume increases by about 27% relative to a control firms that did not undertake any major brand campaign during this period. Advertising is also found to increase the virality and polarity of chatter and with a quick wearin (immediate effect of five days for polarity) and a slow wearout (highest persistence of 45 days for virality). Spillover effects across firms in the market resulting in the increased chatter of the competitors due to advertising are also observed.

Ugc,Advertising,Quasi-Experimental

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Social Media
Chair: Gerard Tellis, University of Southern California
Session 2.19.2
Frontier Learnings from Social Media and Social Networks
1

Does Offline Brand Advertising Affect Online Conversations?

Abhishek Borah, University of Washington
Gerard Tellis, University of Southern California




Marketers are shifting advertising spend from offline to online. However, ignoring the offline advertising has its perils as creatives of offline advertisements are emotion laden. This research attempts to understand whether offline advertising for a brand plays any role in affecting the sentiment of online conversations. We find that TV ads increase sentiment in conversations. Brand-building & promotional ads increase sentiment while apology ads about product recall hurt sentiment. 30 second TV ads work best while less than 30 second ads have no effect. These effects wear-in by the 2nd hour & die down by 6th hour.

Conversations,Advertising,Online

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Social Media
Chair: Gerard Tellis, University of Southern California
Session 2.19.2
Frontier Learnings from Social Media and Social Networks
2

An Exploratory Study of Customer-Based Brand Equity on Facebook

Shobhit Eusebius, University of Otago
Mathew Parackal, University of Otago
Juergen Gnoth, University of Otago



The emergence of digital social networks as mass media has considerably increased the academic research interest in this area. The following is an exploratory ethnographic case study to trace the presence of the dimensions of customer-based brand equity on Facebook. This study outlines the broad scope and prospective challenges for research in this area. The study revealed that while traditional dimensions of brand equity are observed on social media websites there is also an indication that further analysis can reveal dimensions that are not covered by the current theoretical constructs of brand equity.

Social Media,Brand Equity,Netnography

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Social Media
Chair: Gerard Tellis, University of Southern California
Session 2.19.2
Frontier Learnings from Social Media and Social Networks
3

Social Media and Consumers’ Reactions to Brand Crisis: The Case of Barilla

Stefano Pace, Kedge Business School
Bernardo Balboni, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
Giacomo Gistri, University of Macerata



Brand crises endanger companies. Social media are a key platform where stakeholders elaborate and react to crises. This research explores whether social media audience and mass media audience react differently to a brand crisis. We argue that salient stakeholders (i.e. stakeholders who are interested in the issue affected by the crisis) exposed to the brand crisis via social media have a more negative reaction towards the brand compared to those who are exposed via mass media. By analysing the Barilla crisis, the findings suggest that the social media exposure exerts a stronger negative effect on the brand attitude and loyalty.

Social Media,Crisis Management,Brand

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Social Media
Chair: Gerard Tellis, University of Southern California
Session 2.19.2
Frontier Learnings from Social Media and Social Networks
4

Brand and Social Network Community Commitment in Brand Fan Pages in Social Media

Caterina Presi, University of Leeds
Dawei Su, University of Leeds




This paper investigates the impact of social network community commitment (SNCC) and brand community commitment (BCC) on usage of brand fan pages in social media, repurchase intention and word-of-mouth. Data from 270 questionnaires were analysed using SEM. Findings reveal that only affective BCC impacts brand fan page usage. Repeat purchase intention and positive word of mouth are impacted positively by affective and normative BCC, but negatively by continuance BCC. Thus, lurking delivers positive business impact. The relationship with the brand fan page community is driven by commitment based on affect and duty, rather than necessity. Community commitment operates differently in brand fan pages compared to social networks overall.

Commitment,Social Media,Brand Community

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Javier Sesé, University of Zaragoza
Session 2.2.5
Relationships and Performance
1

How Relationship Conditions Affect Suppliers’ Resource Inputs

Roger Baxter, Auckland University of Technology
Michael Kleinaltenkamp, Freie Universität Berlin




For buyer-seller relationships to allow for effective transmission and integration of resources, and for value creation, each partner needs to invest in the relationship and needs to make it easy for the other partner to access their resources. However, every investment is risky and it is not sure whether investment objectives will be achieved, so this paper addresses the question of which factors drive intention to invest into a customer relationship from a supplier’s perspective. We propose and test three factors as positive investment drivers: the relationship quality; the suppliers’ expectation of future access to the important intangible resources in their customers; and the relationship value perceived by the supplier. By analyzing interview and survey data from managers, the study finds support for the propositions. Relationship value and expectation of future access to the customers’ resources have direct effects on suppliers’ intentions to invest. Relationship quality also has a strong effect, mediated by the other two drivers.

Performance,Relationship,Resources

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Javier Sesé, University of Zaragoza
Session 2.2.5
Relationships and Performance
2

Stock Market Reactions to Technology Licensing Contracts

Erik A. Mooi, Aston University / Aston Business School
Stefan Wuyts, Koç University, College of Administrative Sciences and Economics




Technology licensing consists of licensees buying technology usage rights from licensors, often in the form of patents, copyrights, and trademarks. This market amounted to about US$173.4 billion in 2009. Governance decisions determine if licensees can use licenses productively. Drawing on contract and governance theories, we propose that monitoring and termination clauses have financial performance implications. While licensing is an important phenomenon, surprisingly few studies addressed the impact of governance in a technology licensing context. Using a rich dataset of stock market returns, formal licensing contracts, and firm descriptors, we provide first insight into the drivers of financial returns for licensees.

Licensing,Governance,Event Study

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Javier Sesé, University of Zaragoza
Session 2.2.5
Relationships and Performance
3

The Antecedents and Effects of Information Technology Usage on Trade Show Performance

Jaywant Singh, Kingston University
Paurav Shukla, Glasgow Caledonian University
Charles Blankson, University of North Texas



The advancements in information technology have raised concerns about the future of trade shows as a marketing tool. Whilst these advancements present threats and opportunities, research examining the integration of information technology into trade show activities is sparse. This is despite the vital role of information technology in initializing and developing international b2b relationships. Employing a questionnaire-based survey with aviation industry professionals, this study examines the antecedents and effects of web integration into trade shows. The data were analysed using partial least squares structural equation modeling. The findings demonstrate significant impact of IT usage on the performance of trade shows, at different stages. The results have managerial implications for adopting internet-based tools during trade shows.

Tradeshows,Internet,Pls-Sem

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Javier Sesé, University of Zaragoza
Session 2.2.5
Relationships and Performance
4

Understanding the Adoption Timing of a Loyalty Program among Business Customers: The Role of Marketing and Social Influence

F. Javier Sese, University of Saragossa
Manfred Krafft, University of Münster
Kalyan Raman, Northwestern University
Vijay Viswanathan, Northwestern University


Loyalty programs (LPs) are a popular instrument to build profitable relationships, and achieving a successful LP launch critically depends on a firm’s ability to obtain the deepest penetration and fastest spread into the business market. In this study, we propose an integrated conceptual framework to understand the simultaneous effect of marketing activities, social influence, and business customer characteristics on the time to adopt a LP. The framework is tested in a B2B setting using Bayesian spatial techniques, and the results show that (1) sales efforts shorten LP adoption time, (2) social effects are present both at the internal (same zip) and external (adjacent zips) levels, and (3) business customers show different predispositions to adopt a LP (individual heterogeneity).

Loyalty Program Adoption Timing,Targeted Marketing Activities,Social Influence

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Eva Muenkhoff, University of Paderborn
Session 2.2.6
Solution & Service
1

The Role of Buying Center Members’ Individual Motivations for the Adoption of Innovative Hybrid Offerings - The Case of Battery Electric Vehicles in Corporate Fleets

Lukas Burs, Hochschule Ruhr West
Ellen Roemer, Hochschule Ruhr West




This paper investigates the adoption of innovative hybrid offerings in the case of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in corporate fleets. In an exploratory research using depth interviews with 16 experts for BEVs, different buying center roles as well as their individual motivations for the adoption of BEVs could be identified. We develop a two-tier typology of buying center members’ individual motivations relating to both personal interests (such as environmental concern) and role-based motivations (such as the promotion of the corporate image). These motivations either foster or hinder the adoption of BEVs in corporate fleets. Based on the typology, implications for theory, for management practice and for government can be developed to enhance the adoption of BEVs in corporate fleets.

Hybrid Offerings,Individual Motivations,Organisational Buying Behavior

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Eva Muenkhoff, University of Paderborn
Session 2.2.6
Solution & Service
2

B-To-B Solution Provision: An Empirical Investigation of Performance-Related Outcomes

Mariachiara Restuccia, HEC Montreal
Renaud Legoux, HEC Montréal
Ulrike De Brentani, John Molson School of Business, Concordia University



Offering B-to-B ‘customer solutions’ has been associated with positive outcomes for suppliers. Yet, empirical evidence documenting such claims has not been established. The literature is also unclear on whether gains are superior when solutions target established as opposed to new customers. We use the ‘process-centric’ view of solutions, together with ‘relationship lifecycle’ theory to develop two competing mechanisms—‘solution as leverage’ and ‘solution as accelerator’—by which to explain the link between outcome and solution provision for established versus new customers. The analysis of longitudinal sales data from a North American solution provider: (1) empirically confirms the positive impact of solution provision on outcomes; and (2) supports the ‘solution as accelerator’ explanation suggesting that suppliers achieve equal or superior outcomes when efforts are directed at new customers.

Solution Provision,Customer Relationship Lifecycle,Customer Retention

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Eva Muenkhoff, University of Paderborn
Session 2.2.6
Solution & Service
3

The Role of Certification in Seller-Reseller Relationships: A Critical Evaluation Through the Lens of Embededness

Chris Storey, Cass Business School - City University London
Canan Kocabasoglu-Hillmer, Cass Business School, City University London
Sinead Roden, Cass Business School, City University London
Ko De Ruyter, Maastricht University, School of Business and Economics


The certification of resellers is prevalent in the information and communication technology (ICT) sector. Certification is a mechanism employed by suppliers to provide credibility and ensure consistent quality of service by reseller. Despite their widespread use there is limited research on certification. The objective of this study is to understand how structural and relational embededness affect the role certification has in driving relationship bonds and relationship economic satisfaction. We use network planning and online communities as proxies for structural and relational embededness. Based on a sample of 151 ICT resellers, our results suggest that certification does not work when considered alone. Certification and structural embededness act as substitutes in promoting relational performance. However relational embededness in the form of partner communities significantly increase in the roles of both certification and network planning on relationship bonds and economic satisfaction. The study highlights the importance of partner communities in balancing the tension between certification and network planning. It also suggests

Embededness,Certification,Relationsip

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Business-to-Business Marketing
Chair: Eva Muenkhoff, University of Paderborn
Session 2.2.6
Solution & Service
4

Service Transition: A Viable Option for Manufacturing Companies with Declining Financial Performance?

Andreas Eggert, University of Paderborn
Eva Muenkhoff, University of Paderborn
Christoph Thiesbrummel, University of Paderborn



Manufacturers place increasing emphasis on services. While many firms have started their service maneuver in reaction to declining financial performance, theory argues that strategic change processes such as service transitions require a healthy financial outset to succeed. To shed light on the preconditions of successful service transitions, this study draws on configuration theory and empirically demonstrates that firms with healthy and declining financial situations can venture into services and realize future revenue growth. Our findings reveal, however, that firms need to tap different knowledge sources: healthy companies should focus on customers as the primary knowledge source; strug-gling companies need strong links with their suppliers instead.

Service Transition,Configuration Theory,Qualitative Comparative Analysis

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Angela Paladino, The University of Melbourne
Session 2.20.5
Green Consumption
1

Pay For Clean and Green? Assessing the Willingness to Pay More for Green Power

Angela Paladino, The University of Melbourne
Ameet Pandit, University of Newcastle




Green marketing is largely concerned with resources conservation and the development of environmentally friendly strategies (Oyewole 2001). Past research has examined the attitudes and behaviours towards green tangible products (e.g. Paladino 2005), there is limited research that examines the motivations behind the purchase of green electricity. This paper will attempt to increase the understanding of consumer attitudes, and knowledge towards the purchase of green electricity employing exploratory research. Focus groups were conducted across each state of Australia. The findings indicate that education, knowledge, budgets and price were the most important indicators of green electricity purchase. However, consumers perceive green electricity to be unreliable and costly compared to a traditional form of electricity. Consumers were likely to switch to green electricity only if there was a clear error made by the service provider.

Green Electricity,Attitudes,Pricing

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Angela Paladino, The University of Melbourne
Session 2.20.5
Green Consumption
2

Green Consumption: The Roles of Green Value, Perceived Utilities and Purchase Intention

Ruizhi Yuan, University of Nottingham Ningbo
Martin J. Liu, Nottingham University Business School China
Alain Yee-Loong Chong, Nottingham University Business School China
Jun Luo, Nottingham University Business School China


This research conceptualizes three dimensions of consumer’s perceived green value and investigates its direct relationship with purchase intentions. The research also investigates the mediating roles of acquisition and transaction utilities in this green value-intention relationship. Findings confirm that the effect of green value on purchase intentions is significantly mediated by consumer’s perceived net gains from acquiring the green product (acquisition utility). In contrast, functional values are negatively associated with consumers’ perceptions of gaining a good price deal (transaction utility). Additional results indicate that in green consumption context, acquisition utility is a stronger driver of purchase intention compared to transaction utility.

Green Value,Utility Theory,Green Consumption

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Angela Paladino, The University of Melbourne
Session 2.20.5
Green Consumption
3

The Impact of Value Orientations on Consumer Attitudes towards CRM

Grzegorz Zasuwa, The John Paul II Catholic Univeristy of Lublin





Taking the Schwartz's theory of human values as a conceptual framework, this paper investigates the impact of values on consumer attitudes towards cause-related marketing (CRM). The study is based on a random, non-student sample. Statistical exploration relies not only on multiple regression but also includes fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. Regression results show that consumers attaching a lot of weight to conservative and self-transcendence values are more likely to express favourable attitudes towards CRM campaigns. Fuzzy-set analysis replicates regression findings and suggests that other values can be linked to CRM attitudes as well. Specifically, the analysis finds asymmetric links among self-enhancement, openness and CRM attitudes. This sheds a new light on the impact of human values on consumer responses towards marketing activities with a social dimension.

Human Values,Cause-Related Marketing,Consumer Attitudes

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Angela Paladino, The University of Melbourne
Session 2.20.5
Green Consumption
4

Corporate Social Responsibility as a Catalyst for Sentimental Stock Price Corrections

Robert Merrin, Universidad de Cantabria
Guillermo Maraver Tarifa, Universidad de Granada




Abstract: Extant research finds that firms can buffer the effects of sentimental stock price corrections when bubbles burst by increasing their customer satisfaction. Research also shows that corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an antecedent of customer satisfaction and is related to market value. This study bridges the gap between these two findings by examining the cross-section of stock returns by CSR activity, and conditional on investor sentiment. Surprisingly, results show that CSR activities have the opposite effect of customer satisfaction: they catalyze firms’ reactions to investor sentiment, increasing volatility and returns. Implications for managing market-based assets are that CSR policies should be undertaken during periods of low investor sentiment, and alternatives to CSR should be undertaken to increase customer satisfaction during periods of high investor sentiment.

Sentiment,CSR,Firm-Value

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: H. Onur Bodur, Concordia University
Session 2.20.6
Ethics and Consumption
1

Persuasion Knowledge, Alcohol Consumption and Event Sponsorship

Faranak Abbaspuli, University of Minho
Marjan Sara Jalali, Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Minoo Farhangmehr, University of Minho



This paper examines the impact of event sponsorship by alcohol companies on participants’ perceptions of the events and their intentions to drink. Sponsorship is gaining importance, as companies seek to better communicate with their customers in an increasingly promotion-cluttered environment. When this sponsorship is undertaken by alcohol companies, however, it is not without controversy, particularly for sporting events or those targeted at young people. In a series of experimental studies we show that alcohol sponsorships influence the perceived level of excitement of an event, as well young people’s intentions to drink. This effect can be somewhat mitigated by making persuasion knowledge more salient; however, the association of an alcohol sponsor with an event can be such that the event alone triggers greater drinking intentions.

Persuasion Knowledge,Sponsorship,Social Marketing

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: H. Onur Bodur, Concordia University
Session 2.20.6
Ethics and Consumption
2

Individual Motives and Collective Experiences of Ethical Consumption. The Case of Ethical Purchasing Groups in Italy

Daniele Dalli, University of Pisa
Camilla Barbarossa, LUISS Guido Carli University




Different types of ethical collective communities (e.g., Community-Supported Agriculture, New Consumption Communities) have recently arisen, especially in the food sector. This study aims to develop insight into the rise of Ethical Purchasing Groups, in Italy. Specifically, this study explores the motives that drive consumers to engage in collective experiences of ethical consumption, such as Ethical Purchasing Groups. A qualitative interpretive approach is adopted. Forty-three members of nine Ethical Purchasing Groups from two regions in Italy are interviewed. Results show that consumers join Ethical Purchasing Groups to meet ethical instances, support local, small suppliers, and develop social interactions with people having similar values, concerns, and ideologies.

Ethical Consumption,Ethical Purchasing Group,Motives For Ethical Consumption

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: H. Onur Bodur, Concordia University
Session 2.20.6
Ethics and Consumption
3

Moral Hypocrisy and the Impact of the ‘active’ Versus ‘passive’ Nature of Misbehavior

Tine De Bock, KULeuven
Iris Vermeir, Ghent University
Patrick Van Kenhove, Ghent University



People are likely to systematically approach the ethics of others more critically compared to their own ethics. Moral hypocrisy reflects this egocentric ethics perspective as it refers to the phenomenon whereby people tolerate their own questionable behavior more than similar misbehavior of others. Recently, researchers call far more studies examining the conditions tempering this moral hypocrisy phenomenon. The present study complies with this call by showing evidence for a particular boundary condition. Findings demonstrate that individuals tolerate their own moral transgressions more compared to similar transgressions of others when these transgressions involve wrongdoing by action. In case of wrongdoing by inaction, findings show no difference between the evaluations of one’s own questionable acts versus those of others.

Moral Hypocrisy,Intuition,Omission Bias

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: H. Onur Bodur, Concordia University
Session 2.20.6
Ethics and Consumption
4

The Effectiveness of Normative Messages on Sustainable Product Decisions and the Moderating Role of Social Identity Complexity

Kimberly Duval, Concordia University
H. Onur Bodur, Concordia University
Stephanie Peck, Concordia University



Social norms play an important role in shaping environmentally conscious purchase decisions. However, individuals are often part of many different groups resulting in a more complex social identity. Exposure to multiple and possibly diverging group norms likely lessens the influence of any single norm on behavior. The current research examines the moderating role of social identity complexity (SIC) on the impact of normative messages on sustainable product consumption. Results indicate that SIC moderates the effectiveness of normative messages on preference for sustainable products.

Consumption,Identity-Complexity,Norms

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Minoo Farhangmehr, University of Minho
Session 2.20.7
Emotions and Ethics
1

The Emotional Self of Responsible Consumers: An Exploratory Study

Estela Díaz, Comillas Pontifical University
Carmen Valor, Universidad Pontificia Comillas




Research on moral behavior has emphasized the role of emotions as a constitutive part of moral identity. This paper aims to describe the emotional self of responsible consumers, by identifying the self-constituting emotions of responsible consumers ́ identity. After analyzing 30 interviews with responsible consumers, we conclude that five are the emotions that prototypically characterize responsible consumers: empathy, gratitude, (moral) anger, hope, and nostalgia. All are considered other-focused emotions and are strongly linked to the key goals consumers report have in life. The implications of these findings are then discussed and further research lines are suggested.

Emotions,Identity,Consumption

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Minoo Farhangmehr, University of Minho
Session 2.20.7
Emotions and Ethics
2

Emotion and Ethical Decision Making: an Exploratory Study

Marco Escadas, Polytechnic Institute of Cávado and Ave
Minoo Farhangmehr, University of Minho




Ethics reveals to be a growing area of interest in business literature. Based initially on a cognitive-developmental approach, ethical decision making has progressively been understood as a multidimensional process that requires additional constructs to explain the phenomena of morality, becoming emotions a key element in consumer ethical deliberation. Aiming to examine the role of emotion in consumer’s ethical decision making process, forty-seven (47) in-depth interviews were conducted, using critical incident technique. Findings identify most recurrent unethical behaviours in consumption environment. The results also suggest that concerns expressed with ethics do not necessarily lead to ethical behaviour. In addition, results show that emotion not only influences ethical decision making, but also is a significant outcome of moral decisions.

Ethical Decision Making,Emotion,Rest’s Model

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Minoo Farhangmehr, University of Minho
Session 2.20.7
Emotions and Ethics
3

Moral Outrage at Unethical Corporate Behavior

Stan Maklan, Cranfield University
Paolo Antonetti, Warwick University




Researchers have recently begun to investigate the emotional reactions that lead to consumer boycotts and have suggested moral outrage as a key emotion. This paper extends our understanding of consumer moral outrage in three directions. Firstly, we present a model of moral outrage based on four cognitive appraisals that influence outrage feelings. Secondly, this research shows that feelings of outrage influence protest behavior while at the same time activating moral principles that determine consumers’ ethical judgments and behaviors. Thirdly, this paper demonstrates that moral outrage is stronger when consumers categorize the victims of unethical practices as members of the in-group. This article contributes to research on an important emotional reaction associated with unethical corporate practices and presents critical implications for scholars and managers.

Boycotts,Unethical Corporate Behavior,Outrage

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Suzanne C. Beckmann, Copenhagen Business School
Session 2.20.8
Environment and Marketing
1

Cross-Cultural Differences in the Formation of Attitudes and Usage Intention of Electric Cars: A Comparative Study of Denmark, Belgium and Italy

Camilla Barbarossa, Luiss University
Suzanne C. Beckmann, Copenhagen Business School
Ingrid Moons, University of Antwerp
Patrick De Pelsmacker, University of Antwerp


We propose a model in which green self-identity (GSI) is an antecedent of both environmental concern (EC) and moral obligation (MO), which in turn affect the attitude towards eco-friendly electric cars (ATT). GSI is also assumed to have a direct effect on ATT. The attitude towards the electric car then determines the intention to adopt it. The model is empirically tested in three culturally different European countries: Denmark (n=611), Belgium (n=600)and Italy (n=794). The findings reveal that the three antecedents play significantly different roles in attitude formation in the three countries, with GSI most important in Denmark, strong EC in Belgium and MO playing a dominant role in Italy. We suggest explanations using Hofstede’s values framework.

Electric Cars Adoption,Ethics,Cross-Cultural Behaviour

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Suzanne C. Beckmann, Copenhagen Business School
Session 2.20.8
Environment and Marketing
2

Cognitive, Attitudinal and Behavioral Variables As Predictors of Energy Saving Behavior Among Employees

Danae Manika, Queen Mary, University of London
Diana Gregory-Smith, University of Sheffield
Victoria Wells, Durham University
Sonja Graham, Global Action Plan


This paper responds to the corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature’s calls for further research at the micro level by studying the effects of attitudes, norms and subjective knowledge on employees’ energy saving behaviors at the workplace. An initial theoretical model which identifies cognitive (workplace norms and subjective energy saving knowledge at the workplace), attitudinal (general environmentally friendly attitudes and specific energy saving attitudes), and behavioral (energy saving behaviors at home) variables that affect energy saving behaviors of employees at the workplace is advanced and tested. Managerial implications and future research directions for effective social marketing interventions that motivate energy saving behaviors at the workplace are discussed.

: Corporate Social Responsibility,Energy Saving Attitudes,Employee Energy Saving Behavior

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Suzanne C. Beckmann, Copenhagen Business School
Session 2.20.8
Environment and Marketing
3

Will I Taste it if It’s Good for the Planet? Proenvironmental Perceptions and Values as Drivers to Counter-Cultural/counter-Attitudinal Food Product Trial, the Case of Entomophagy in Western Countries

Gilles Séré De Lanauze, Montpellier II University





As western consumers become more and more sensitive to the new societal and environmental stakes, the question still remains whether this has an effect on their consumption choices and behaviors. Entomophagy is presented today as a sustainable and pro-environmental solution to feed the world. For western consumers, who are offered every day, in the stores and restaurants, new and innovative food products, often originated from all around the world, what are the drivers to the trial and consumption of such counter-cultural and counter-attitudinal products? The results of this exploratory research show that if pro-environmental personal values and norms play a role in future consumption intention, actual behavior, which faces several types of inhibitions, might be fostered by more social and situational drivers.

Sustainability,Inhibitions,Entomophagy

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Karin Teichmann, Innsbruck University
Session 2.21.1
Emotions and the Tourist Experience
1

I Feel Good! Destination Attractiveness and Travelers’ Emotional Responses: An Empirical Study in Alpine Winter Destinations

Alexandra Brunner-Sperdin, Innsbruck University
Bernd Frederik Reitsamer, Innsbruck University, School of Management




In today’s growing tourism industry we need to understand what makes a destination more attractive and therefore more competitive. The aim of the present study is to define key factors of destination attractiveness that facilitate a holistic perception of Alpine winter destinations. We rely on theories of visual preference (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989) and develop a destination perception model arguing that travelers prefer destination settings which are both high in sense-making and exploration resources, making them feel good and comfortable. Findings indicate that both sense-making resources (i.e., access and amenities) and exploration resources (i.e., attractions and activities, entertainment and local community) have an impact on travelers’ pleasure and subsequently on their loyalty and intention to return to a destination.

Destination Attractiveness,Place Perception And Preference,Emotional States

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Karin Teichmann, Innsbruck University
Session 2.21.1
Emotions and the tourist experience
2

Emotional Experiences and Value Perception in Tourism Services: A Phenomenological Exploration

Mika Boedeker, Tamk University of Applied Sciences
Nina Helander, University of Vaasa




Literature emphasizes the role of emotional experiences in tourism services. In addition, customers’ value expectations are rather high when it comes to their leisure time and utilization of tourism services. The interesting question is that how these issues are related to each other: how do emotional experiences affect the value perception of tourism services? This paper presents a phenomenological exploration to propose answers to this question. The results indicate that non-monetary value exceeds monetary value in tourism service perception, and both positive and negative emotional experiences are highly connected to the value perception. Subsequent research questions are presented for further research.

Tourism,Value,Emotions

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Karin Teichmann, Innsbruck University
Session 2.21.1
Emotions and the tourist experience
3

Feeling your Way - The Role of Emotions in Understanding Tourist Experiences

Uli Knobloch, University of Otago
Kirsten Robertson, University of Otago
Rob Aitkin, University of Otago



Since the emergence of experiential marketing, positive customer experiences have become a focal point for marketing, hospitality and tourism. However, positive experiences have not been clearly defined and what makes certain experiences stand out for consumers is largely unknown. The present study used in-depth interviews with tourists to examine the nature of their experiences and the aspects of their experiences that made them stand out. Findings revealed that 1) there are different types of experiences, which stand out in the minds of respondents for different reasons, and 2) more emphasis must be placed on the role of emotions, which seem to be at the core of special experiences. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications for experiential marketing are discussed.

Tourism,Experience,Memorable

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Karin Teichmann, Innsbruck University
Session 2.21.1
Emotions and the tourist experience
4

Post-Consumptive Experience of Wellness & Spa Tourism – How Re-Experiencing the Past Promotes Tourists’ Behavioral Intentions

Bernd Frederik Reitsamer, Innsbruck University
Mathias C. Streicher, Innsbruck University
Karin Teichmann, Innsbruck University



This research investigates the impact of sensorimotor perceptions in wellness settings on tourists’ cognitive and behavioral responses. We introduce re-experience, a cognitive measure that captures both how well (i.e., quality) and how frequent (i.e., quantity) tourists can recall a past consumption experience. Results show that visual, tactile and motor perceptions significantly influence the quality of re-experience while all five sensory modalities, but not motion, influence the quantity of re-experience (i.e., how often retrospection takes place). Most importantly, our study implicates that triggering re-experience by means of easy-to-implement marketing tools provides a powerful instrument to boost behavioral intentions in post-consumption stages.

Wellness Tourism,Post-Consumption Experience,Sensory Marketing

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Alessandro De Nisco, University of Sannio
Session 2.21.2
Emotions and Tourism Choices
1

Guilt Decreasing Marketing Appeals: The Efficacy of Luxury Vacation Advertising among Chinese Tourists

Isabella Soscia, Skema Business School
Girish Prayag, University of Canterbury
Özlem Hesapçı, Boğaziçi University



Guilt is relevant to a variety of consumption experiences and marketers have used advertising to arouse guilt as a way to stimulate sales. However, the ability of advertising to decrease guilt has been neglected by marketing and tourism scholars. The aim of this research is to assess the role of guilt-decreasing appeals in reducing anticipated guilt towards a luxury vacation. An experimental study shows that guilt can be reduced without compromising the hedonic benefits of a guilty pleasure. Moreover, the results show that the more successful an advertisement is in depressing anticipated guilt, the more successful it is in enhancing attitude toward the ad and toward the promoted vacation.

Guilt,Happiness,Tourism

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Alessandro De Nisco, University of Sannio
Session 2.21.2
Emotions and Tourism Choices
2

Does Economic Animosity Affect Country Image and Tourism Behavior? A Study on the Perception of Germany in Italy and Spain During the Euro Crisis.

Alessandro De Nisco, University of Sannio





This paper investigates the impact of economic animosity and nationalism on tourists’ behavior. Drawing from the literature on animosity, consumer ethnocentrism/nationalism, and country image, it is proposed a comprehensive research model which analyzes the relationship between economic animosity and nationalism and their impact on perceptions of general country image, tourism destination image, and destination receptivity. The model was tested on a sample of 384 Italian and Spanish graduate students with regard to the image of Germany during the Euro crisis. Based on the results the paper concludes with a discussion of contribution to animosity and country image theory and underlines potential implications for both police makers and national companies.

Animosity,Country Image,Tourism Behavior

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Alessandro De Nisco, University of Sannio
Session 2.21.2
Emotions and Tourism Choices
3

Promoting Sustainable Tourism Products: The Influence of Emotional and Rational Responses to Marketing Communication on Decision-Making

Dorothea Schaffner, Lucerne University of Applied Sciences
Roger Wehrli, Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts
Jürg Schwarz, Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts
Sascha Demarmels, Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts


Marketing plays an important role in implementing sustainable tourism. Lately, researchers, pol-icy makers and practitioners have recognized the importance of understanding the promotion of sustainable tourism products and the perception of advertising appeals by tourists. The present study analyzes how emotional and rational responses of tourists to advertising appeals promot-ing sustainable tourism products influence decision-making. In an online-survey (N=753) we find – in line with hypotheses – that with sustainable appeals emotional responses take a stronger influence on decision-making than rational appeals. It is concluded that sustainable tourism products are promoted more effectively by using emotional appeals.

Sustainability,Tourism Products,Emotions

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Alessandro De Nisco, University of Sannio
Session 2.21.2
Emotions and Tourism choices
4

Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Toward Sustainable and Non-Sustainable Tourism Destination Images

Irais Cabrera, University of Quintana Roo
Alejandro Alvarado, University of Quintana Roo
Judith Cavazos, Universidad Popular Autónoma Del Estado de Puebla



To explore and analyze explicit and implicit tourist attitudes towards destinations that are trying to project a sustainable image and the ones that are not doing so, a research was performed using a questionnaire as a method of direct evaluation and an Implicit Association Test as a method of indirect evaluation to 123 tourists from 20 different nationalities. Results show significant differences between both methods which seem to undercover that in the same way that several organizations have a rhetorical (and even cynical) discourse about sustainable development, consumers may have their own too.

Implicit_association_test,Destination_image,Sustainable_destination

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Salvador Ruiz. University of Murcia
Session 2.3.5A
Experiential consumption
1

Sharing Sensations: Effect on Product Evaluation

Inés López, Murcia University
Salvador Ruiz, Murcia University
Sarah Moore, University of Alberta



Humans, as social beings, are motivated to create a shared reality with others in terms of beliefs, emotions, or inner states. This desire is related to the “saying-is-believing” effect, which occurs when individuals tailor their messages to particular audiences in order to achieve a shared reality. In this working paper, we demonstrate that the saying-is-believing effect plays a role in product evaluation so that consumers tailor their product attitude in the direction of the audience’s opinion. This effect is stronger for less preferred products when no additional information is available. These findings provide important directions for marketing new products in dynamic today’s markets where category ambiguity is very frequent.

Saying Is Believing Effect,Sharing Sensations,Product Preference

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Salvador Ruiz. University of Murcia
Session 2.3.5A
Experiential consumption
2

“Good” versus “Popular Taste” Appeals and their Importance in Driving Consumer’s Product Evaluations

Karin Teichmann, Innsbruck University
Nicola E. Stokburger-Sauer, University of Innsbruck




Despite the fact that expert judgments play a critical role in aesthetic consumption decisions, no final answer has been given to the question if knowing what experts consider regarding meeting good taste is more persuasive than knowing what is actually preferred by consumers (i.e., popular taste). An experimental study among fashion consumers and professionals working in the fashion industry reveals that experts evaluate a product more positive if good taste is emphasized. In contrast, popular taste appeals result in more positive product evaluations of non-experts than of experts. Marketers should be aware that the influence of expert judgments is limited to experts’ product evaluations only; they are advised to communicate a product’s popularity to other consumers in marketing campaigns to increase the company’s success.

Taste,Expertise,Aesthetics

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Salvador Ruiz. University of Murcia
Session 2.3.5A
Experiential consumption
3

I Want you to Open my Letter: Effects of Uncommon Envelope Formats and Materials

Verena Huettl, University of Hohenheim
Jana Daume, University of Hohenheim
Heribert Gierl, University of Augsburg



The challenge for direct mailings is to get opened by the receiver since a huge number of di-rect mail ends up in the trash bin without being read. Uncommon envelope formats and mate-rials might be able to enhance the opening intention by stimulating consumers’ curiosity. We conducted an experiment to investigate three levels of format and material uncommonness on the opening rate of the envelopes and the degree of evoked curiosity. Moreover, we examined the effect of curiosity on the evaluation of the offer which was contained in the direct mail envelope. Our results show that uncommon formats and materials evoke curiosity and increase the opening rate of direct mail envelopes. Furthermore, curiosity turned out to act as an amplifier which makes the offer evaluations more extreme, i.e. evaluations even improved for attractive offers and deteriorated for rather unattractive offers.

Directmail,Envelope,Curiosity

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Salvador Ruíz, University of Murcia
Session 2.3.5A
Experiential consumption
4

Stereotypes, Cognitive Performance, and Implicit Discrimination of Elderly Consumers

Andrea Gröppel-Klein, Saarland University
Thomas Linden, Saarland University
Christian Weins, Saarland University
Anja Spilski, Saarland University


Population aging will have a fundamental impact on the economy and society over the coming decades. But how are elderly people viewed by society? Age stereotypes can work as primes, having a significant influence on physical and cognitive outcomes, and can lead to discrimination. We carried out two experiments to investigate the effects of age stereotypes on consumers’ cognitive performance in typical consumer behaviour contexts.

Aging Stereotypes,Performance Of Elderly,Patronizing Communication

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Spiros Gounaris. Strathclyde Business school
Session 2.3.5B
Values drive consumer decisions
1

The Safety of (status) Objects: An Investigation of how Status Consumption Buffers Existential insecurity in Materialistic Consumers

Christian Martin, University of Lausanne





This project contributes to the literature on the consequences of materialism. In particular, two studies are reported that suggest that materialistic consumers buffer their existential insecurity through the consumption of status goods. However, only few people are able to afford status consumption on a day-to-day basis. Moreover, Study 2 suggests that consumption of low-status goods could elevate existential concerns in materialists. In turn, consumption of status goods can elevate existential concerns in low-materialism consumers. These findings advance our understanding of the impact of consumption on psychological well-being and have thus implications for social marketers and policy makers.

Status Consumption,Materialism,Terror Management Theory

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Spiros Gounaris. Strathclyde Business school
Session 2.3.5B
Values drive consumer decisions
2

Psychological Distance of Consumers’ Selves: Reality Vs. Ideals

Daniela Herzog, University of Bern
Lucia Malär, University of Bern
Bettina Nyffenegger, University of Bern
Lisa Schürmann, University of Bern
Harley Krohmer, University of Bern

Consumers’ ideal self-concepts are rather hypothetical and related to the future as compared to actual self-concepts which are experienced in the here and now. Thus, the ideal self-concept may be perceived as more psychologically distant. Based on construal level theory, the authors empirically examine this association and find that consumers construe their ideal self-concept on a more abstract level than their actual self-concept. The level of abstractness decreases if consumers perceive their ideal self-concept as likely attainable. Furthermore, the psychological distance associated with the ideal self is characterized by several dimensions (mainly temporal, hypothetical, and spatial) which have managerial implications for the design of marketing activities. Additionally, the findings extend construal level theory into the domain of consumers’ self-concepts.

Construal Level Theory,Ideal Self,Actual Self

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Spiros Gounaris. Strathclyde Business school
Session 2.3.5B
Values drive consumer decisions
3

Social Values and Bandwagon Motivations in the Context of Luxury Consumption

Kostas Kaminakis, Athens University of Economics and Business
Spiros Gounaris, Strathclyde Business School
Kalipso Karantinou, Athens University of Economcis and Business
Boukis Achilleas, University of Sussex


The global luxury market has seen an incredible increase in value during the last decades. Notwithstanding its volume, the marketing of luxury products has only attracted limited attention from academics and practitioners and still the specificities of this lucrative market and the nuances of luxury consumer behavior remain underexplored. This study aims to redress this gap and investigates the motive of bandwagon, highlighted as an important motivation of luxury consumption in extant literature; looks into the antecedent role of social values; and examines the mediating role of ideal self-concept as well as the moderating role of consumers’ susceptibility to interpersonal influence and consciousness. The study provides a complete luxury consumption framework explaining the bandwagon motivation.

Luxury Consumption,Values,Bandwagon

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Spiros Gounaris. Strathclyde Business school
Session 2.3.5B
Values drive consumer decisions
4

Valuing Organic Food-Differences Between Virtue and Vice Categories of Organic Food Products

Vassiliki Grougiou, International Hellenic University
Foivos Anastasiadis, International Hellenic University
Stefanos Giannikis, International Hellenic University



Drawing on the theoretical frameworks of expected utility, religious and institutional perspectives, we try to understand whether differences exist in consumers’ evaluation of relative vice and virtue categories of organic food products in terms of their food quality and trust. Based on a sample of 428 respondents drawn from diverse market settings, we find that while consumers hold a positive stance towards the quality of relative virtue organic food this is not the case for the relative vice products. However, no differences in consumers’ trust over the organic food labelling of relative virtue and vice organic food products are found. The findings have significant theoretical and managerial implications.

Virtue,Vice,Consumers

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Ana Valenzuela. Baruch College
Session 2.3.6A
Consumer-product duality
1

A Meaningful Embrace: Contingent Effects of Embodied Cues of Affection

Ana Valenzuela, Baruch College
Rhonda Hadi, Oxford University




Can a mere gesture lead to intimate product bonding? In this research, we find that affectionate gestures (e.g. hugging, stroking) can serve as routes to object attachment. We suggest that the mere execution of an affectionate gesture can generate emotional attachment, which translates into enhanced product attitudes. However, this effect is contingent on the existence of facilitating conditions via the presence of human-like characteristics in the target object of the affectionate gesture.

Embodiment,Contextual Implication Model,Product Attitutes

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Ana Valenzuela. Baruch College
Session 2.3.6A
Consumer-product duality
2

On investigating the Role of Network Effects as Moderating Enabler in Product-Harm Crises

Ioannis Tsiamis, Athens University of Economics and Business
George Siomkos, Athens University of Economics and Business




There is a growing interest in research regarding the antecedents that impact consumer responses in times of product-harm crises. Still, most of the existing studies seem to, either, focus on products where no network externalities are present, or, neglect the role of network effects in influencing consumer intentions. In this study, we reveal the positive impact of network effects along corporate reputation in reducing negative implications after a product–harm crisis in conjunction to other widely recognized factors that influence consumer responses. Our focus lies in the mobile communications industry and extends from the affected company to all competitors

Network-Effects,Crises,Product-Harm

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Ana Valenzuela. Baruch College
Session 2.3.6A
Consumer-product duality
3

Exposure to Mastery and Perceived Self-Efficacy

Irene Scopelliti, Cass Business School - City University London
Simona Botti, London Business School
Carmen Donato, University of Groningen



We hypothesize and test that observing masterful performances of experts at difficult activities increases one’s perceptions of self-efficacy at those same activities. The exertion of control apparent in the masterful performance is vicariously experienced by the observers, and raises their expectations on their own ability to perform the same activity. The effect is moderated by the similarity between the observer and the performer. These results provide useful insight on the conditions under which exposure to expert performance may enhance or not the intentions to perform a certain activity or purchase products that require a high level of skills and practice.

Mastery,Self-Efficacy,Product Demonstration

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Ana Valenzuela. Baruch College
Session 2.3.6A
Consumer-product duality
4

Can FMCG Producers Get Away with Deceptive Packaging and Slack Filling? An investigation of Consumer Attitudes and Behaviours

Stephen Wilkins, Plymouth University
Carina Beckenuyte, Fontys University of Applied Sciences, The Netherlands




Although the practice of deceptive packaging is neither new nor unknown, the literature on this issue is very scare. The aims of this research are to discover the extent to which consumers are aware of air filling in food packaging (i.e., where there is a discrepancy between packaging size and actual content), the extent to which slack filling leads to cognitive dissonance, and the extent to which feelings of cognitive dissonance and being deceived lead to negative post purchase behaviours for producers. The sample consisted of 219 customers of FMCG products in Germany. Our findings suggest that the practices of deceptive packaging and slack filling risk creating consumer dissatisfaction, brand boycotting and negative word of mouth. We argue therefore that FMCG producers cannot assume they will get away with deceptive packaging and slack filling.

Packaging,Dissonance,Behaviour

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Utpal Dholakia, Rice University
Session 2.3.6B
Consumer orientation and bahavior
1

Study of the Concert Experience Lived by Consumers. Interpretive Analysis of Quantitative Data

Charlotte Massa, Toulouse 1 Capitole University
Jean-Philippe Galan, IAE - Université de Valenciennes




The purpose of this paper is to define and enhance the understanding of the lived consumption experience of the concert by means of a particular theoretical approach and a methodological approach still little-used in consumer behaviour. Through a consumer value approach which takes key elements of experiential perspective into account and through an application of an interpretative analysis of quantitative data, this paper advocate that mixing qualitative and quantitative approaches in a single study seems to be an efficient and “pragmatic” methodology in order to consider the cultural consumption experience more effectively and to manage to broaden its theory.

Experience,Methodology,Epistemology

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Utpal Dholakia, Rice University
Session 2.3.6B
Consumer orientation and bahavior
2

An Added Value of Neuroscientific Tools to Understand Consumers’ in-Store Behaviour

Dalia Bagdziunaite, Copenhagen Business School
Khalid Nassri, Center for Decision Neuroscience, Department of Marketing, Copenhagen Business School
Jesper Clement, Center for Decision Neuroscience, Department of Marketing, Copenhagen Business School
Thomas Zoëga Ramsøy, Center for Decision Neuroscience, Department of Marketing, Copenhagen Business School and Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre


Little is still understood about the actual in-store purchase process. Here, we report that prior ad exposure affects in-store decision-making. By using mobile eye-tracking and electroencephalography (EEG), we demonstrate that, unbeknownst to participants, the ad effect was driven by increased visual exploration of the product shelves for the brand that was presented during ad exposure, and a stronger motivation score, as assess by the brain’s prefrontal asymmetry. These findings are discussed in the light of the academic and commercial need to integrate neuroscientific tools in the study of consumer perception and choice.

Decision-Making,Eye-Tracking,Motivation

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Utpal Dholakia, Rice University
Session 2.3.6B
Consumer orientation and bahavior
3

Which one Was First? the Impact of the Purchase Order on the Sunk-Cost Effect

Lennart Straus, Kaiserslautern University
Thomas Robbert, Kaiserslautern University
Stefan Roth, Kaiserslautern University



The impact of sunk costs on decision making is well researched in a variety of disciplines. Yet, we argue that previous studies may have overestimated the effect strengths by not accounting for the order, in which the decision maker obtains the high and low sunk cost alternatives. This paper uses two choice experiments with different designs to test for order effects. Thereby, we underline previous findings on the existence of the effect before we show that the sunk-cost effect is significantly affected by the order in which the individual receives the high sunk cost alternative.

Sunk-Cost Effect,Utilization,Order

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Utpal Dholakia, Rice University
Session 2.3.6B
Consumer orientation and bahavior
4

The Ant and the Grasshopper: Understanding Personal Saving Orientation

Nancy Wong, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Leona Tam, University of Wollongon
Sunyee Yoon, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Utpal Dholakia, Rice University


Asset building and wealth creation lead to sound financial health. At the heart of this process is the role of saving. If we can understand factors resulting in good saving behaviors, we can develop strategies that facilitate such actions. Using Kuhl’s (1994) theory of action orientation, we explored the importance of the savings “action” in personal savings. Given the repetitive nature of putting money into savings, the habitual nature is also crucial in understanding how individuals incorporate personal savings in their everyday life. Using four studies, we developed and tested a measurement scale to capture different facets of personal savings orientation.

Financial Well-Being,Personal Saving,Scale Development

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Petra Riefler. University of Vienna
Session 2.3.7A
On how consumers related with brands
1

Consumers Reaction to Gender Cues in Advertising

Alexandra Hess, University of Waikato
Alexandra Hess, University of Waikato
Valentyna Melnyk, Massey University
Carolyn Costley, The University of Waikato


In this research, we investigate the effect of implicit gender cues on brand warmth and competence perception. Further, we examine how consumers react to implicit gender cues when exposed to additional warmth/competence cues. We propose a framework that takes multiple warmth and competence cues into account. The framework is then used to assess the effects of implicit gender, warmth and competence cue on consumer perception of brands and purchasing intention. Consistent with the framework, across 2 studies we find that implicit feminine gender cues enhance perceived brand warmth and purchase intention when paired with a high competence cue yet backfire when paired with a low competence cue. In contrast, implicit masculine gender cues enhance perceived brand competence and purchase intention when paired with low competence cues yet backfire when combined with high competence cues.

Warmth And Copetence,Gender Cues,Brand Perception

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Petra Riefler. University of Vienna
Session 2.3.7A
On how consumers related with brands
2

Present your Brand’s Authentic Side. Consumers will Dig Deeper into their Pockets.

Petra Riefler, Vienna University
Johannes Zwinger, University of Vienna




Brand authenticity has been repeatedly designated as one of the major marketing trends in the 21st century. While brands extensively use authentic brand cues to create unique and trustworthy images, empirical research on the effects of authenticity is scant. This paper proposes that brand authenticity depicts an intangible benefit to consumers which thus should result in higher willingness to pay (WTP). In two experimental studies, we show that authentic brand cues indeed increase WTP levels. Importantly, we also demonstrate that both local and global brands can benefit from brand authenticity.

Brand Authenticity,Willingness To Pay,Bdm Lottery

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Petra Riefler. University of Vienna
Session 2.3.7A
On how consumers related with brands
3

Did you just Betray Me, My Friend? the Dark Side of Selling Extended Warranty

Robin Chark, National University of Singapore
Peter Fischer, University of St. Gallen




In four studies, this paper shows that the solicitation of ESC may cause harm to a firm. In study 1, we find that the solicitation of ESC decreases brand trust and reliability. This effect is found to be mediated by performance risk. We examine the psychological mechanism in study 2. When solicited with an ESC, consumers’ betrayal aversion is activated and spills over to weakened trust more generally as measured by a trust game. We go on to examine betrayal aversion by directly manipulating betrayal vs. trust in study 3. The priming of betrayal increases performance risk and decreases both brand reliability and trust, replicating the effect in study 1. In study 4, we find that betrayal aversion is only activated when the relationship is built on a communal norm. The effect is attenuated when the relationship is built on an exchange norm.

Warranty,Betrayal Aversion,Brand Trust

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Petra Riefler. University of Vienna
Session 2.3.7A
On how consumers related with brands
4

One Product's Blessing Is Another Product's Curse - Spillover Effects Between Certified and non-Certified Products of the Same Brand

Ulya Faupel, TU Dortmund University
Hartmut H. Holzmüller, TU Dortmund University, Department of Markting




On consumer goods markets we see an increasing use of quality labels. Often not the whole product range is certified but only single products of one brand. Following Consistency Theory we expect this labelling practice to have negative effects on consumer’s perception of non-certified products. We deduce from spillover and quality label literature that brand strength and fit might influence the effectiveness of such practices. To test our assumptions, we conducted two online experiments. We find out that products of well-known brands suffer from certification with a quality label of low fit – even if the majority of products is certified.

Spillover Effects,Quality Labels,Brand Strength

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Michal Herzenstein. University of Delaware
Session 2.3.7B
Prosocial behaviors
1

All for one and one for all: how Quickly-Formed Consumer Groups Can Encourage Prosocial Behaviour

Guy Champniss, Henley Business School at The University of Reading
Hugh Wilson, Cranfield School of Management
Emma Macdonald, Cranfield School of Management
Radu Dimitriu, Cranfield School of Management


This paper explores alternative means by which brands can encourage consumers to engage in socially and environmentally positive behavior. Rather than altruism appeals, we suggest that brand owners use social identity effects among consumers. A controlled field experiment shows that the degree of group salience and the nature of group goal positively influence collaborative prosocial behaviors, both between the consumer and the brand, and between the consumer and other beneficiaries of the behavior. These results shed light on group influences on consumer behavior, and help practitioners develop more effective strategies to collaborate with the consumer in achieving sustainability aims

Prosocial,Group,Identity

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Michal Herzenstein. University of Delaware
Session 2.3.7B
Prosocial behaviors
2

Cultural Effects of Social Exclusion on Conspicuous Consumption and Charitable Helping

L. J. Shrum, HEC Paris
Jaehoon Lee, University of Houston - Clear Lake




Consumer responses to social exclusion depend on which needs are threatened, but there are cultural differences in exclusion effects on needs-threats. For Koreans (Americans), being rejected (ignored) increases conspicuous consumption, whereas being ignored (rejected) increases helping. These differences result because explicit (being rejected) vs. implicit (being ignored) exclusion threatens efficacy (power) vs. relational (self-esteem) needs in opposite ways for Koreans and Americans. In turn, the culturally opposing needs-threats are mediated by differences in communication norms: Americans value being direct and explicit in communication (low-context cultures), whereas Koreans value being indirect and implicit in communication (high-context cultures).

Social Exclusion,Conspicuous Consumption,Charitable Donation

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Michal Herzenstein. University of Delaware
Session 2.3.7B
Prosocial behaviors
3

Identity Transition and Consumer Behavior

Maria Cristina Cito, University of Bologna
Elisa Montaguti, Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna
Alessandra Zammit, Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna



This research aims at investigating the effect of identity transition on consumer behavior. Indeed, despite marketing literature recognizes that identity changes over time (for instance when one gets married or gets a new job), little is said about how the transition from an old to a new identity affects consumption. Basing on works in both marketing and organizational behavior literatures, we investigate whether the magnitude of the identity transition, that is the degree of discontinuity from a previous identity to a new one, affects consumers’ choices. Results from two studies show that new identity-related products are preferred by people experiencing a high-magnitude, but not by people experiencing a low-magnitude transition.

Social Identity,Identity Transition,Product Evaluation

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Michal Herzenstein. University of Delaware
Session 2.3.7B
Prosocial behaviors
4

Crowdfunding to Make A Difference: how the Number of Options Affects Prosocial Choice

Utpal Dholakia, Rice University
Michal Herzenstein, University of Delaware
Scott Sonenshein, Rice University



Using field and laboratory studies, we examine prosocial decision making for crowdfunding social ventures. Our results reveal that for prosocial choices, the relationship between number of options provided to decision makers and funding outcomes is a U-shaped relationship --- the “prosocial choice hypothesis”--- and is mediated by the venture organizer’s perceived competence. Decision makers weigh the organizer’s competence more heavily when making prosocial (vs. non-prosocial) choices, and the U-shaped pattern is turned on with an intuitive processing style and turned off with an analytic processing style for prosocial choices. These findings provide guidance regarding how to influence potential contributors to social causes.

Prosocial,Crowdfunding,Choice

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Joris Demmers. University of Amsterdam
Session 2.3.8A
The rainbow in consumer decisions
1

Creamy Red and Crunchy Blue? How Colour Interacts with Perceptions of Texture

Gavin Northey, University of Western Sydney
Mathew Chylisnki, University of NSW
Liem Ngo, University of NSW



This study explores the sensory-marketing effects of cross-modal interaction between vision and haptic perceptions of texture. Specifically, we show that moving up the colour spectrum from red to blue dampens the perception of particular types of food texture. Conceptually, we relate such cross-modal sensitivity with indicators of overall haptic predisposition for an individual in terms of Need for Touch (NFT) and Self-Orientation (SO). Our results show that the association between colour and texture interacts with the NFT and SO.

Crossmodal,Haptic,Colour

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Joris Demmers. University of Amsterdam
Session 2.3.8A
The rainbow in consumer decisions
2

Color Correct: the Interactive Effects of Food Label Coloring and Food Type on Health Perceptions

Gergely Nyilasy, The University of Melbourne
Joseph Tan, University of Melbourne
Jill Lei, University of Melbourne
Anish Nagpal, University of Melbourne


The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of food label coloring in interaction with food types (healthy and unhealthy) on consumer food healthiness perceptions. The theories of heuristic processing, color attention, color association and approach-avoidance are evoked to explain underlying processes. A 2 (food-type: healthy vs. unhealthy) X 3 (color: green healthy nutrients vs. green unhealthy nutrients vs. no color) between subjects design was used to test the hypotheses. Findings suggest that for healthy foods, the effect of coloring reduced perceived healthiness but for unhealthy foods, perceived healthiness did not increase as a result of coloring.

Food Marketing,Nutritional Information,Color Processing

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Joris Demmers. University of Amsterdam
Session 2.3.8A
The rainbow in consumer decisions
3

When Red Means Go: Effects of Red on Non-Compliance Under Sensation-Seeking

Joris Demmers, University of Amsterdam
Ravi Mehta, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Willemijn Van Dolen, University of Amsterdam
Charles Weinberg, University of British Columbia


Previous research has identified red as the color of compliance. This paper proposes that this effect of red may not hold under high sensation-seeking circumstances. We argue that the instructional perception flowing from red interacts with high sensation-seeking to induce reactance, which then leads to non-compliant behavior. Three experiments and one field study support this theorizing. Study 1 demonstrates that high-sensation seekers show greater resistance to social norms under red as compared to white color. Studies 2 and 3 identify reactance to the color red as the underlying mechanism driving this effect. Finally, a field study, using prank chatting at a child helpline as a proxy for non-compliant behavior, demonstrates a positive effect of red on prank-chatting behavior.

Color,Compliance,Sensation-Seeking

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Joris Demmers. University of Amsterdam
Session 2.3.8A
The rainbow in consumer decisions
4

Visuo-Haptic Integration Increases Purchase Intentions via Processing Fluency

Mathias Streicher, Innsbruck University
Zachary Estes, Bocconi University




Consumers often touch products before reaching purchase decisions. However, no study thus far has conclusively clarified whether grasping products for a brief duration promotes purchase intentions. Recent neuroscience studies suggest that vision and touch are fundamentally integrated because both senses serve similar behavioral functions. Here, we posit that briefly viewing and touching a product drives purchase intentions through increases in processing fluency from visuo-haptic integration. We test our assertion in one pretest and one experiment and compare it against competing explanations in a multiple mediation model. We found that brief touches increased product evaluations and purchase intentions via processing fluency.

Consumer Behaviour,Sensory Marketing,Visuo-Haptic Integration

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: John Fahy. University of Limmerick Kemmy Business School
Session 2.3.8B
Dissonance and context effects
1

How the Attractiveness of the Context Influences Perceived Product Attractiveness: the Role of Consumers’ Product Familiarity

Benedikt Schnurr, Innsbruck University
Alexandra Brunner-Sperdin, Innsbruck University
Nicola Stokburger-Sauer, Innsbruck University



Research has examined the determinants of product attractiveness. However, prior studies have neglected the context, in which products are presented. Drawing on social cognition theory, we examine how the attractiveness of the context (e.g., websites, advertisements) influences perceived product attractiveness. Results from two experimental studies show that consumers perceive unfamiliar products as more attractive when products are placed in an attractive context than when placed in an unattractive context. No differences in consumers’ perceived product attractiveness exist for familiar products. Our findings extend the literature on product aesthetics and provide managers with insights on how to promote the attractiveness of their offerings more effectively.

Perceived Product Attractiveness,Social Cognition Theory,Context Effects

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: John Fahy. University of Limmerick Kemmy Business School
Session 2.3.8B
Dissonance and context effects
2

Consumption Is Production. Home Made Pasta in Italy: the Object, the Self, the Others

Ilaria Lorenzoni, University of Pisa
Daniele Dalli, University of Pisa




Abstract. Pasta has a long tradition in many cultures: in Italy, China, the Middle and the Far East ordinary people prepare pasta out of a dough made of flour and water. In given conditions they do it on a daily basis, more often for special occasions, as Sundays, birthdays, and the like. For centuries it has represented a central element of food culture in several areas of the world. Italy is one of the most important pasta cultures and this paper aims to provide evidence about how and why today consumers make pasta at home. In essence, they do it to get the final ‘outcome’ (the object): fresh pasta, made of genuine and healthy ingredients and following authentic recipes. They also do it for the gratification they get from the very ‘process’ of making it. First, to express their creativity and, at the same time, respecting and preserving traditions. And secondly, as a means for interacting with other people inside and outside the family.

Pasta,Self-Production,Productive Consumption

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: John Fahy. University of Limmerick Kemmy Business School
Session 2.3.8B
Dissonance and context effects
3

The High-Performance Heuristic: Developments In The Psychology Literature

John Fahy, University of Limmerick, Kemmy Business School
Robert Hamlin, University of Otago/Department of Marketing




Heuristics is a widely disseminated concept in marketing. Heuristic processes are usually associated with low involvement decisions and sub-cognitive choice processes. There is an almost universal assumption that heuristics are used as a trade-off strategy by customers where a less reliable outcome is exchanged for less effort. Recently the concept of the high performance heuristic has emerged in psychology. It is proposed that heuristics are not used by decision makers as part of an input/output trade off, but because in many situations single input heuristics display absolutely superior predictive performance to more complex and structured cognitive strategies. The arguments that support this potentially very significant development for marketing and consumer behaviour studies are summarised and presented in this article.

Heuristics,Cognition,Involvement

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: John Fahy. University of Limmerick Kemmy Business School
Session 2.3.8B
Dissonance and context effects
4

Parents’ Irrational Food Choice Behaviour – An Analysis in the Context of Baby Food

Laura Teichmann, TU Dortmund University
Christian Samulewicz, TU Dortmund University
Hartmut H. Holzmüller, TU Dortmund University



Although there is an information-overload on how to feed babies the healthiest way, parents seem to rather choose the easiest solution: Industrial baby food. This behaviour contradicts all the usual parental statements such as always wanting to do “what’s best” for the child. The aim of this qualitative study is therefore to analyze how parents come to a feeding decision as well as to explore how parents feel about their choices. The results show (1) that the regular model of consumer decision-making needs to be adjusted in the specific situation of buying baby food and (2) that parents show clear signs of cognitive dissonance when explaining their feeding choice.

Parental Decision-Making,Food Choice,Cognitive Dissonance

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Stéphane Salgado, Aix-Marseille III
Session 2.4.5
Creativity
1

The Dual Role of Prior Ideas in Driving Creative Performance in Open Ideation Contests

Suleiman Aryobsei, University of St. Gallen
Reto Hofstetter, Università della Svizzera italiana
Andreas Herrmann, University of St.Gallen
Darren Dahl, Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia


We investigate the influence of prior ideas on solvers’ creative performance in online open ideation contests. In three lab studies and an empirical analysis of a large-scale dataset from a European ideation platform, we find evidence for two opposing effects of prior ideas. First, more prior ideas stimulate memory more broadly leading to greater creative performance. Second, more prior ideas signal greater competition hereby reducing creative performance. We show that the latter negative effect of prior ideas can be reduced if prior ideas are displayed in an aggregated way, which keeps their informational value but reduces the visibility of competition.

Ideation Contests,Prior Ideas,Search For Ideas In Associative Memory

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Stéphane Salgado, Aix-Marseille III
Session 2.4.5
Creativity
2

What is the Appropriate Reward For Product Creativity During an Idea Generation Contest: Monetary, Reputational or Brand Feedback?

Stéphane Salgado, Aix-Marseille III / IAE Graduate Management School
Virginie Debarnier, IAE Aix-en-Provence
Anne-Marie Guerrin, IAE Aix-en-Provence



Idea generation contests are widespread when firms are looking for new ideas of products or services. Integrating the consumer into the New Product Development process is critical and community managers need to tackle the issue of community participation to idea contests. Many incentives are at stake such as monetary, reputational and brand feedback. In an experimentation we found evidence that the best ideas were delivered through the interaction of reputational reward and brand feedbacks. Finally theoretical and managerial implications are presented

Idea Generation,Reward,Reputation

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Stéphane Salgado, Aix-Marseille III
Session 2.4.5
Creativity
3

The Role of Employee Creativity and Attention-To-Detail in Product Innovation

Phyra Sok, Charles Sturt University
Aron O'Cass, University of Tasmania




Product innovation has been identified as the key to firms’ marketplace success. Yet, the failure rate for new product is high. Because of the high costs associated with new product development, there is considerable theoretical and managerial interest in how to minimize the high failure rates of new products and what separates new product winners from losers. This study focuses on employee capacity to engage in creativity and attention-to-detail simultaneously, skills/tasks that are seen as involving different centers of attention, and rely on somewhat incompatible behaviors and processes. The results show that employees need to engage at high levels creativity and attention-to-detail in their pursuit to enhancing product innovation to achieve superior financial performance.

Product Innovation,Employee Attention To Detail,Employee Creativity

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: José Luis Munuera, University of Murcia
Session 2.4.6
Innovation Performance
1

Performance Effects of Combining Rational and intuitive Approaches in Making New Product Idea Evaluation Decisions

Katrin Eling, Eindhoven University of Technology
Fred Langerak, Eindhoven University of Technology
Abbie Griffin, University of Utah



Empirical research on the performance effects of combining rational and intuitive approaches in making new product idea evaluation (IE) decisions is lacking. This research, therefore, empirically explores which combination of the two approaches improves the quality and speed of IE decision-making. To this end, an experiment with product development professionals was conducted that manipulated the use of four decision approach combinations in making an IE decision. The results show that only one combination, starting with intuitively analyzing the idea options and rationally considering the resulting intuition in making the final IE decision, leads to both the highest quality and speed.

New Product Idea Evaluation,Decision-Making Approaches,Decision-Making Performance

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: José Luis Munuera, University of Murcia
Session 2.4.6
Innovation Performance
2

Aligned and Misaligned Innovation and their Performance Outcomes

Matti Juhani Jaakkola, Aalto University
Erik Mooi, Aston Business School
John Rudd, Aston Business School



In this study, we explicitly connect the literature focusing on the drivers of innovation and the literature explaining the performance outcomes of innovation. We examine if heeding the advice of the literature on innovation drivers matters and argue that the performance outcomes of innovation are in large part predicated on the theory-predicted level of innovation. We also decompose the part of innovation that is not theory-derived and investigate the performance consequences of having lower or higher levels of innovation than expected. Furthermore, the performance outcomes of these deviations level display heterogeneity with regard to environmental uncertainty and competitive intensity.

Innovation,Firm Performance,Alignment

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: José Luis Munuera, University of Murcia
Session 2.4.6
Innovation Performance
3

Complex Modeling of Factors influencing Market Success of New Product and Service Developments

László Molnár, University of Miskolc
Szabolcs Nagy, University of Miskolc
István Piskóti, University of Miskolc
Csilla Molnárné Konyha, University of Miskolc


Identification of drivers of new product success and analysis of their relations are very critical for companies to be successful in their core markets. It is agreed in the literature that firm strategy (marketing synergy, technology synergy), process characteristics and product characteristics all influence market success. Our main objective was to develop an innovation model integrating the structural and process elements influencing market success of innovations. We empirically tested our model by structural equation modeling and found that market success of innovations was highly determined by product characteristics, but it was also significantly, but to a lesser extent, influenced by process characteristics and the firm strategy. We also found that market success of innovations intensified the reactions of competitors.

Innovation,Market Success,New Product Development

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: José Luis Munuera, University of Murcia
Session 2.4.6
Innovation Performance
4

Predevelopment Activities and New Product Performance

María Moreno-Moya, Murcia University
Jose Luis Munuera, University of Murcia




Effectively managing predevelopment activities is one of the most important and difficult challenges facing innovation managers. Its importance lies in the fact that effectively performing predevelopment activities can contribute directly to the success of a new product. Unfortunately, research and framework-building in this area has been limited. In fact, difficulties occur in studying the predevelopment stage as it is dynamic, often unstructured, has traditionally been characterized by low levels of formalization and it is extraordinarily difficult to evaluate its performance. With these arguments in mind, this study aims to analyze the relationship between predevelopment and project performance. We test our hypotheses on a sample of 207 manufacturing firms, applying the technique of structural equation modelling. Our results demonstrate the importance of predevelopment activities on new product performance.

Predevelopment Activities,New Product Development,Product Innovation

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Ralitza Nikolaeva, Lisbon University institute (ISCTE)
Session 2.4.7
Adoption and Disadoption
1

Mobile Service Systems – A Conceptualization and Empirical investigation of Users’ Adoption

Robert Ciuchita, Maastricht University
Dominik Mahr, Maastricht University
Gaby Odekerken-Schröder, Maastricht University
Martin Wetzels, Maastricht University


Recent innovation of service systems based on mobile networks span purposes such as communication (e.g., Snapchat), payment (e.g., Google Wallet) or couponing (e.g., SpotAd). These services are primarily used via mobile devices demanding users’ willingness to process personal data (e.g., messages, transactions, shopping preferences) and a number of other system actors to offer value. This research identifies key features of new Mobile Service Systems and tests a conceptual model of their adoption, using time-variant survey data of 500 users and their actual adoption behavior. The results demonstrate the impact of mobile network reach and mobile data confidentiality on multiple subjective outcomes (i.e. intention to use, service satisfaction, recommendation); yet, only satisfaction drives adoption behavior.

Mobile,Innovation,Adoption

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Ralitza Nikolaeva, Lisbon University institute (ISCTE)
Session 2.4.7
Adoption and Disadoption
2

The Late Adopter Scale: A Tool To Identify Late-Adopters of Technology innovation

Sara F. Jahanmir, Nova School of Business and Economics
Luis Filipe Lages, Nova School of Business and Economics




Literature on innovation mainly focuses on the early adopters. The first step to involve the late adopters in the process of innovation is to identify them. With this aim, we conduct two studies and develop a scale to measure Late Adopter attributes. In study one of mobile phone users, we develop the Late-Adopter Scale, which is then tested on a new sample of laptop users. Both studies indicate that this scale is multi-dimensional and presents three dimensions of Late Adopter attributes: 1) Later Adoption, 2) Resistance to Innovation, 3) Skepticism. Findings of both studies reveal that all three Late Adopter Scale dimensions are significantly associated with low price preference. In both samples Skepticism is associated with high preference for simplicity, lower leading edge profile and lower product involvement . Discussion focuses on implications of this new scale for theory and practice.

Diffusion Of Innovation,Late Adoption,Laggard

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Ralitza Nikolaeva, Lisbon University institute (ISCTE)
Session 2.4.7
Adoption and Disadoption
3

Demand-Side Perspective of Technology Substitution: Disadopting Landlines For Mobile Phones

Ralitza Nikolaeva, Lisbon University Institute (ISCTE)





Some technologies are quickly supplanted by innovations, yet others continue co-existing with new technologies. Why? A new technology becomes a substitute only when consumers disadopt the incumbent one. We propose that the consumer disadoption decision is affected by environmental and supply factors and consumer characteristics. The study’s context is landline to mobile phone substitution in eight EU countries. The results confirm the complex system effects in technology substitution such as the socio-technical regime, network effects, market structure; pricing; consumer learning, demographics and lifestyle. It appears that environmental and market factors are stronger predictors than features and usage of the new technology. Complementary services such as Internet connection further enhance landlines’ “stickiness”.

Technology Disadoption,Inter-Generational Technology Substitution,Innovation Diffusion

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Monika Schuhmacher, University of Mannheim
Session 2.4.8
Consumer Perceptions and Behaviors
1

Pricing New Service For Consumer Acceptance: the influence of Consumer Characteristics and Expectations?

Monika Schuhmacher, University of Mannheim
Sabine Kuester, University of Mannheim
Anna-Lena Fertmann, University of Mannheim



In order to shed more light upon the effect of pricing for the successful launch of service innovations (SIs), we investigate the effect of a high versus low launch price on perceived price fairness and, ultimately, adoption intention and two potential moderators. In a experiment we find that the negative effect of a high versus a low launch price on price fairness is moderated by consumer innovativeness and expected future price reduction. Furthermore, we find price fairness to mediate the pricing strategy-adoption intention relationship. Results help managers to better design pricing strategies for SIs.

Innovation,Adoption,Pricing

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Monika Schuhmacher, University of Mannheim
Session 2.4.8
Consumer Perceptions and Behaviors
2

The Effect of Objective, Subjective and Calibration of Supplementary Knowledge on Really-New Product Adoption Behaviour

Kamran Razmdoost, Cranfield University
Radu Dimitriu, Cranfield University




Really-new products (RNPs) create new product categories for consumers. Consumers use their knowledge of similar categories to comprehend and evaluate RNPs. This paper shows that, in addition to actual supplementary knowledge (i.e., objective supplementary knowledge), subjective supplementary knowledge and supplementary knowledge calibration play an important role in RNP comprehension and net benefits evaluation leading to RNP adoption intention. In particular, findings reveal that calibration has a positive effect on objective comprehension when concrete information is presented to consumers. Moreover, subjective knowledge has a positive effect on subjective and objective comprehension where objective knowledge has a negative impact on subjective comprehension.

Supplementary Knowledge,Knowledge Calibration,Really-New Product

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Monika Schuhmacher, University of Mannheim
Session 2.4.8
Consumer Perceptions and Behaviors
3

The New Generation of Eco-Innovators – Beyond Purism and Biospheric Values

Katja Soyez, Dresden University of Technology
Sebastian Gurtner, Technische Universität Dresden




The economic damage of environmental pollution is remarkable. Consequently, there is a need for companies to consider environmental issues in product development and to understand why consumers adopt ecological innovations. By integrating two areas of consumer characteristics, environmental consciousness and innovativeness with a special focus on young consumers the present study answers this question. 425 consumers completed the questionnaire. The result of structural equation modelling showed that joyful consumption is an important antecedent of domain-specific eco-innovativeness. Additionally, biospheric values increase, whereas altruistic values reduce ecological in-novativeness. The results show that product designers have to consider benefits for na-ture and hedonic components of a new product.

Innovativeness,Adoption,Eco-Innovation

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
Innovation and New Product and Service Developments
Chair: Monika Schuhmacher, University of Mannheim
Session 2.4.8
Consumer Perceptions and Behaviors
4

Adding More Value To Added-Value. An Exploration of Consumers’ Perceptions of Improved Animal Welfare Standards in Organic Production Processes

Livia Marian, Aarhus University, business and social sciences





Recent studies reveal that consumers respond favourably to “organic plus” products with additional ethical attributes. The aim of the current study is to explore whether consumers would notice and value further improvements in the animal welfare standards than those imposed by the organic regulation. The results of a qualitative concept test reveal positive attitudes towards the proposed production process. The discussions about fewer standards being sufficient or about options “in-between” conventional and organic standards indicate that the difference in production processes is noticed, yet it is probably valued less than expected. The added attributes need to be thoroughly considered when developing and marketing “organic plus” products, as their effect on other product characteristics (e.g. high prices) can detract from their added value.

Added Value,Consumer Perceptions,New Product Development

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
International and Cross-Cultural Marketing
Chair: Julio Cerviño, University Carlos III
Session 2.5.1
Internationalization
1

European Franchise Expansion into Latin America. Evidences from the Spanish Franchise System

Verónica Baena, European University of Madrid
Julio Cerviño, University Carlos III of Madrid




Although the body on international marketing focuses on emerging markets is growing, the attention paid to the Latin American context continues to be very limited. In an attempt to enhance the knowledge that managers and scholars have on franchising expansion, the present study examines how a number of market conditions may drive diffusion of franchising into those nations. Results obtained in this study are useful for understanding and predicting the demand for franchising in Latin American countries. Moreover, the present work explores how market conditions may drive international diffusion of franchising into Latin American markets.

Country Choice,Internationalization,Franchising

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
International and Cross-Cultural Marketing
Chair: Julio Cerviño, University Carlos III
Session 2.5.1
Internationalization
2

A Meta-Analysis as a Tool for Improving Models of Export Promotion Programs

Dafnis Coudounaris, University of Vaasa





A meta-analysis is a strategic tool to be used in developing new models based on existing ones found in the literature. The implementation of a meta-analysis on the current models of export promotion programs revealed that there are ten important relationships that should be considered in future attempts of developing models in the area. This study also determined that the export promotion programs (EPPs) explain three per cent of the variance of export orientation which means that export managers should be encouraged to use EPPs as well as governmental officials in Ministries of Trade should enhance the development of new EPPs as the benefits for the economies will be far greater than the actual expenditure on these new EPPs, resulting in the growth of exports and the possible exit from the economic depression. Future research on export promotion should exploit these findings.

Models Of Export Promotion Programs,Meta-Analysis,Important Relationships

Thursday, 5 June 2014

9:00-10:30
International and Cross-Cultural Marketing
Chair: Julio Cerviño, University Carlos III
Session 2.5.1
Internationalization
3

Similarities and Differences in the Internationalization Patterns

Benoit Anthony Lopez, University of Seville
Rosario Garcia Cruz, University of Seville




In this paper we are going to conduct an exploratory research about the similarities and differences of the Uppsala, Born Global and Born Again Global models. We propose a pattern to explain these similarities and differences and we try to delimit the behavior of these models of internationalization by comparing these models from a time-based view. For this, we have based our investigation in the analysis and revision of a wide range of research that investigate the internationalization process from a time-based view.

Internationalization,Uppsala,Bornglobal

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
International and Cross-Cultural Marketing
Chair: Julien Schmitt, Aston University
Session 2.5.2
International Marketing Strategy
1

Antecedents of the Scope of International Co-opetitive Relationships

Vladimir Vanyushyn, Umea University / Umea School of Business and Economics





This study examines the drivers behind the international scope of firms’ co-opetitive relationships. Responses from 4624 firms that partook in the fourth nation-wide Community Innovation Survey in Sweden provide empirical basis for investigation. Approaching firms’ involvement in coopetitive arrangements as a two-step process reveals that innovative firms are more likely to be involved in at least one coopetitive relationship, although operational marketing innovativeness had no effect on the likelihood of cooperating with competitors. However, only dynamic capability, conceptualized as firm’s ability to reinvent its internally and externally oriented practices, was a significant determinant of the breadth of international coopetitive relationships. These findings further advance the notion of coopetition, cooperation with competitors, in the international context and contribute to the literatures on international relationship marketing and networking.

Co-Opetition,International,Innovation

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
International and Cross-Cultural Marketing
Chair: Julien Schmitt, Aston University
Session 2.5.2
International Marketing Strategy
2

Conditions for Venture Capital Investments – A Fuzzy Set Analysis

Uwe Messer, University of Bamberg
Alexander Leischnig, University of Bamberg




This study investigates country-market differences in venture capital investment activities. Based on data from 57 countries, the authors employ a fuzzy set analysis to examine configurations of factors that stimulate venture capital activities. The results from this study contribute to a better understanding of how factors regarding regulatory issues, venture capital demand, and venture capital supply affect venture capital activity. The findings from this research help resolve some of the contradictory findings from previous research and indicate two different constellations of factors leading to venture capital investment activities. Based on the findings from this study, the authors derive implications for researchers and managers.

Venture Capital Deals,International Marketing,Cross-Country Analysis

Thursday, 5 June 2014

11:00-12:30
International and Cross-Cultural Marketing
Chair: Julien Schmitt, Aston University
Session 2.5.2
International Marketing Strategy
3

The Impact of Culture on Own-Label Brands Performance

Tribikram Budhathoki, Loughborough University
Julien Schmitt, Aston University
Nina Michaelidou, Loughborough University



Own-label brands performance varies enormously across countries, with high penetration in Western countries but limited success in Eastern countries. This study investigates the impact of national culture on own-label brands’ performance. Using the Hofstede model to apprehend national culture, we show that power distance and individualism have a significant impact on own-label brands’ performance and that this impact is partially mediated by retail market development (i.e. market size, store formats and market concentration). Our findings may help retailers to adapt their own-label strategy according to the culture of the nations they are operating in.

Culture,Own-Label Brands Performance,Retail Market Development

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
International and Cross-Cultural Marketing
Chair: John Cadogan, Loughborough University
Session 2.5.3
Cross-National Marketing Research
1

Drivers of Life Satisfaction for the 50+-Consumer: Evidence from Four Western Countries

Tatjana Koenig, HTW Saarland Business School
Val Larsen, James Madison University
Frank Hälsig, HTW Saar



Marketing research usually focuses on the well-being of companies achieved by serving customer needs. This research takes a different view: it focuses on the well-being of consumers, specifically those in the promising 50+ market. A model of life satisfaction is proposed and empirically tested across four Western countries. The results show that 50+ consumers in the U.S. are more concerned with health than with money issues whereas 50+ consumers in Germany, France and Spain--who pay higher taxes and have fewer opportunities to build wealth--worry more than their American counterparts about making ends meet. The effects of cognitive age and sociality on life satisfaction are also analyzed and implications for marketing to the 50+ consumers in the US, Germany, France, and Spain are derived.

Life Satisfaction,Cognitive Age,50+-Market

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
International and Cross-Cultural Marketing
Chair: John Cadogan, Loughborough University
Session 2.5.3
Cross-National Marketing Research
2

Customer Value Anticipation, Loyalty and Word-Of-Mouth – A Cross-Cultural Study

Matthias Rüfenacht, University of St. Gallen
Philipp Hendrik Steiner, University of St. Gallen / Insitute of Insurance Economics
Tobias Schlager, University of St. Gallen / Center for Customer Insight
Peter Maas, University of St. Gallen / Insitute of Insurance Economics


Fierce global competition urges the requirement for companies to excel. As an effective strategic rationale, the customer value (CV) concept has been considered by researchers and practitioners alike. In this paper we relate the perceived customer value anticipation (CVA) to loyalty and favorable word-of-mouth (WOM) in an international service environment. Further, we investigate the process by mediation analysis, finding cognitive and conative loyalty as pivotal constructs. By including power distance (PD) as a moderator we delineate the effect of cross-cultural differences regarding our proposed framework. We find PD amplifying the indirect effect of CVA on WOM through the loyalty constructs.

Loyalty,Word-Of-Mouth,Cross-Culture

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
International and Cross-Cultural Marketing
Chair: John Cadogan, Loughborough University
Session 2.5.3
Cross-National Marketing Research
3

Assessing the Effectiveness of Advertising for Behavioral Intentions: A Multilevel Analysis Across Countries

Gianfranco Walsh, Jena University
Edward Shiu, Bangor University
Louise Hassan, Bangor University



Extant research provides scant insight into the cross-national effectiveness of marketing communication aimed at engaging consumers and into the moderating role of national characteristics. We assess the effectiveness of a cross-national advertising campaign in terms of changing behavioral intentions. Specifically, we examine the moderating effects of country-level indicators to represent three institutional pillars (regulative, normative/moral and cultural-cognitive) on the mediated associations between three advertising persuasion measures (message comprehension, attitude toward the campaign, message elaboration) and behavioral intentions. Multilevel analysis based on data from a multi-country advertising campaign is examined to test hypothesized within-country and between-country effects. Results confirm the moderating role if the institutional pillars. We discuss implications for international marketing theory and practice.

Attitude Toward Campaign,Behavioral Intentions,Institutional Pillars

Thursday, 5 June 2014

14:00-15:30
International and Cross-Cultural Marketing
Chair: John Cadogan, Loughborough University
Session 2.5.3
Cross-National Marketing Research
4

The Effect of Economic Crisis on Consumer Preferences of Foreign and Domestic Goods: A Cross-Cultural, Longitudinal Study of US, Italy and Lithuania

James Reardon, UNC Monfort College of Business
Donata Vianelli, Università di Trieste
Viltė Auruškevičienė, ISM University of Management and Economics, Vilnius Lithuania
Irena Vida, University of Ljubljana


This research examines the shifts in consumers’ propensity to purchase domestic versus foreign goods before and during an economic crisis. Five potential consumer ethnocentricity models are proposed. The results across three economies suggest that consumers react depending on their environmental context. While there is a general trend toward stronger support of domestic goods during a recession and also potential backlash against foreign products.

Consumer Ethnocentrism,Economic Crises,Structural Equation Modelling

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
International and Cross-Cultural Marketing
Chair: Adamantios Diamantopoulos, University of Vienna
Session 2.5.4
International Consumer Behavior
1

Consumers’ Global Versus Local Brand Choice in Foreign Contexts

Katharina Petra Zeugner-Roth, IESEG School of Management
Claudiu Dimofte, San Diego State University




Global travelers who find themselves in countries known for their tradition in certain product categories will be sure to sample some of the respective local brands. However, it is less clear what choices they will make (i.e., local or global brands) in product categories for which the host nation is not renowned. We hypothesize and find across two studies that these choices are contingent upon (a) consumers’ ethnocentrism and cosmopolitanism and (b) their own country’s tradition in the product category. The relative risk perceptions associated with local brands underlie the uncovered effects. Importantly, global travelers’ choices are malleable and can be swayed with word-of-mouth product recommendations coming from similar others.

Ethnocentrism,Cosmopolitanism,Risk

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
International and Cross-Cultural Marketing
Chair: Adamantios Diamantopoulos, University of Vienna
Session 2.5.4
International Consumer Behavior
2

Perceived Brand Globalness and Consumer Regret: Effects on Word-Of-Mouth and Purchase Intentions

Vasileios Davvetas, Vienna University
Vasileios Davvetas, University of Vienna, Department of International Marketing
Adamantios Diamantopoulos, University of Vienna, Department of International Marketing



This paper investigates the impact of perceived brand globalness (PBG) on word-of-mouth and purchase intentions in the context of a two-alternative, suboptimal regrettable purchase, where the foregone brand performs better than the chosen brand. A structural model is developed and tested after experimentally manipulating the chosen and foregone brands’ PBG. The findings show that the PBG of the chosen brand is associated with higher post-purchase satisfaction and the PBG of the foregone brand with higher regret. Furthermore, satisfaction and regret operate as mediators for the positive effects of PBG on consumers’ intentions to recommend and purchase the chosen and foregone brands in the future. Theoretical and managerial implications of the findings are discussed and further research directions are identified.

Regret,Satisfaction,Globalness

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
International and Cross-Cultural Marketing
Chair: Adamantios Diamantopoulos, University of Vienna
Session 2.5.4
International Consumer Behavior
3

Identifying the Levers of a Country’s Image: a Network Analysis Perspective 

Carmen Lopez, Plymouth University
George Balabanis, City University, Cass Business School




Understanding the richness and complexity of consumers’ memory structures for a country requires the identification of strong, favourable and unique country associations. This paper extends previous research on country image by adopting an associative network perspective to the analysis of country image. Previous studies based on standardised questionnaire measures fail to understand the underbelly of a country’s imagery. As a consequence, they fail to identify which factors should be leveraged to improve image or to overcome image defects. This study shows the application of a novel approach adapted from sociology that can provide practical help to country’s image researchers.

Country Associations,Associative Network,Network Analysis

Thursday, 5 June 2014

16:00-17:30
International and Cross-Cultural Marketing
Chair: Adamantios Diamantopoulos, University of Vienna
Session 2.5.4
International Consumer Behavior
4

Pride And Prejudice – Promotion Or Prevention? Unraveling Domestic Country

Peter Mathias Fischer, University of St. Gallen
Katharina Zeugner Roth, IESEG School of Management




Consumers often are positively biased in their preferences for domestic products to foreign alternatives. Previous research has established consumer ethnocentrism and national identification as possible sources for this bias, yet the process behind those constructs is still not well understood. This investigation shows that domestic country bias cannot be overcome by objectively better products, as tested based on the concept of product-country typicality. Second, two further controlled experiments reveal opposing interactions between consumer ethnocentrism/national identity and consumers’ regulatory focus. The findings suggest important and previously unexplored processes through which domestic country biases can be mitigated.

Domestic Country Bias,Regulatory Focus,Opposing Interactions

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Sylvie Borau, Toulouse Business School
Session 3.1.10
Of Women and Men: Gender, Sex and Evolution
1

Marketing to Women, a Potential Paradigm Shift. Drivers for Effective Communication to Women in The European Automotive Industry

Isa Moll, ESADE Business School
Kathrin Herrmann, ESADE
Ana Varela, ESADE
Jordi Montaña, Uvic, ESADE


Fierce competition and increasing customer sophistication have given birth to the idea of Gender Marketing to more appropriately address the needs of one target group. Based on the idea that there actually are gender differences that matter – marketing had to rethink its strategies, historically based mainly only on men’s needs. As women are becoming an increasingly affluent consumer group, Marketing to Women is gaining significance; however, in some industries, such as the automotive industry, the concept is widely avoided. This study is an initial exploratory attempt to investigate the topic in the automotive industry communication in Europe. Therefore, it functions as a first stepping-stone to further the understanding of how to tackle women in automotive communication, identifying the current approach and potential drivers for more effective advertising to women.

Marketing To Women,Automotive Industry,Advertising

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Sylvie Borau, Toulouse Business School
Session 3.1.10
Of Women and Men: Gender, Sex and Evolution
2

Metaphor Meeting Sex Meeting Guilt: Instances of Metaphor in Sex Appeal Ads and Their Impact on High and Low Sex Guilt Consumers’ Reactions

Ioannis G. Theodorakis, Athens University of Economics and Business
Vlasis Stathakopoulos, Athens University of Economics and Business
Androniki Katarachia, TEI of Western Macedonia
Efthymia Kottika, Athens University of Economics and Business


Advertisers apply metaphorical twists and sexual themes so as to evoke viewers’ favorable responses. However, the combined impact of such practices dependent upon consumers’ sex guilt (SG) still eludes. Two studies shed light on this matter. Per findings, only more sophisticated metaphorical sex ads cognitively and attitudinally outperform plain sex ads. Moreover, a person’s SG is influential. In general, high SG individuals score significantly worse in terms of elaboration, counterarguing and attitude toward the advertised organization compared to low SG persons. Finally, cognitive response variations appear between same SG level consumers depending on exposure to a non/metaphorical sex ad.

Metaphor,Sex Appeal Ads,Sex Guilt

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Sylvie Borau, Toulouse Business School
Session 3.1.10
Of Women and Men: Gender, Sex and Evolution
3

Intrasexual Competition and Advertising: How Evolution Influences Advertising Efficacy and Consumer Well-Being

Sylvie Borau, Toulouse Business School





The purpose of this paper is to integrate the findings of evolutionary psychology in better understanding the effects of exposition to idealized female models on both advertising efficacy and women’s individual well-being. After briefly reviewing sexual selection theory, this paper presents the results of two studies. Study 1 uncovers that some women do consider female models in advertising as potential rivals. Study 2 shows that respondents experience stronger female competitiveness when exposed to an idealized model than a non-idealized model. Results also reveal that participants who feel intrasexual competition with an idealized model perceive it as less congruent with the product category and less reliable. These women also feel higher levels of body-focused anxiety and lower levels of positive emotions.

Idealized Models,Evolutionary Theory,Consumer Well-Being

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Sylvie Borau, Toulouse Business School
Session 3.1.10
Of Women and Men: Gender, Sex and Evolution
4

Consumers' Response to Sexual Appeals in Advertisements: the Moderating Role of Sexual Sensation Seeking in Contexts of Std Prevention versus Perfume Promotion

Marie-Cécile Cervellon, EDHEC Business School
Frank Pons, Université Laval, Quebec, Canada & Knege Business School, France
Giovanni Pugliese, International University of Monaco



This paper aims at investigating the influence of an individual trait, the Sexual Sensation Seeking trait (Kalichman et al, 1994), on consumer responses to sexual ads with varying levels of sexual content across two different contexts: the promotion of a perfume and the prevention of STD. For perfume ads, responses are more positive to sex content at higher levels of sexual sensation seeking. In contrast, for STD prevention, a romantic appeal is more effective at higher levels of sexual sensation seeking. The research rules out the confounding effects of gender, age and general sensation seeking tendency. Results are discussed.

Sex Appeal,Sensation Seeking,Std Prevention

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Verolien Cauberghe, Ghent University
Session 3.1.11A
New Media, Alternative Forms of Advertising
1

Conventional Ads us. Product Placements: the Impact of Stimulus Integration on Viewer’s Brand Choice

Ignacio Redondo, Autonomous University of Madrid
Jorge Bernal, Universidad de Tarapacá




Despite the increasing prevalence of product placement, no previous studies have compared the behavioral effects of conventional commercials and brand placements. This experiment consisted of isolating and testing the behavioral effects of a Coca-Cola stimulus in the form of a placement integrated within the movie "Ways to Live Forever" and a traditional commercial shown before this movie. The Coke integrated stimulus, unlike the Coke conventional one, was able to persuade significant numbers of both another brand’s loyal users and brand-switching users. This finding could help marketers allocate their resources between conventional advertising and product placement more effectively.

Product Placement,Conventional Advertising,Advertising Effectiveness

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Verolien Cauberghe, Ghent University
Session 3.1.11A
New Media, Alternative Forms of Advertising
2

Effects of Disclosing Brand Placement on Attention, the Use of Persuasion Knowledge and Brand Responses: An Eye Tracking Study

Sophie Boerman, University of Amsterdam
Eva A. Van Reijmersdal, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR)
Peter C. Neijens, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR)



This eye tracking experiment (N = 149) investigates the effects of different ways of disclosing brand placement on viewers’ visual attention, use of persuasion knowledge, and brand responses. Results show that (1) a combination of a text (“This program contains product placement”) and a PP (“product placement”) logo is most effective in enhancing the recognition of advertising, and a PP logo is least effective; (2) this effect is mediated by viewers’ visual attention to the disclosure and the brand placement; and (3) the recognition of advertising consequently increases brand memory and decreases brand attitudes.

Brand Placement,Disclosure,Eye Tracking

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Verolien Cauberghe, Ghent University
Session 3.1.11A
New Media, Alternative Forms of Advertising
3

Advertising Literacy in an Advergame Context. The Moderating Impact of an Advertising Literacy Training Session on Children’s Advertising Vulnerability

Liselot Hudders, Ghent University
Veroline Cauberghe, Ghent University
Katarina Panic, Ghent University



This study examines the impact of advergames and the role of an advertising literacy training session for children on their purchase request and behavioral intention in two experiments. The results show that both cognitive and affective advertising literacy are lower for an advergame than for a TV ad. However, only affective advertising literacy mediates the effect of advertising format on purchase request and behavioral intention. When it comes to increasing children’s advertising literacy, a training session accelerates the cognitive (but not the affective) advertising literacy of children, and this especially for the advergame (vs. the TV ad). Finally, the results show that while the training session is effective in decreasing the vulnerability to advertising effects of nine-year-olds, this is not the case for seven-year-old children.

Children,Advergames,Advertising Literacy

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Verolien Cauberghe, Ghent University
Session 3.1.11A
New Media, Alternative Forms of Advertising
4

Media Multitasking Contexts and Advertising Effectiveness of Traditional and Online Advertising: The Mediating Role of Attention

Snezhanka Kazakova, Ghent University
Veroline Cauberghe, Ghent University
Liselot Hudders, Ghent University



Media multitasking is a new consumption context that affects the way advertising stimuli are processed and evaluated. In two studies, we explore the effects of media multitasking contexts involving a single or multiple media devices on brand memory and perceived intrusiveness of advertising content. Both studies show that media multitasking leads to lower brand memory, while advertisements are perceived as less intrusive in multitasking compared to traditional media contexts. Additionally, both studies confirm that attention mediates the observed effects on brand memory and perceived intrusiveness, suggesting that the allocation of limited attentional capacity is the underlying mechanism driving these effects.

Media-Multitasking,Advertising,Attention

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Mark Uncles, University of New South Wales
Session 3.1.11B
Modeling Advertising
1

Pharmaceutical Brands Early Lifecycle Advertising Linked to Lower Prevalence of Receiving FDA Warning Letters; a Retrospective Analysis

Helene Moore, Ryerson University





The purpose of this paper is to characterize brands that received warning or untitled letters from the FDA about non-compliant marketing campaigns between 1997 and 2000. A multiple-variable OLS models is specified and estimated, which show a significant positive relationship between direct-to-physicians but more importantly direct-to-consumers advertising and the number of FDA warning letters. However these relationships are neutral or negative in brands early lifecycle. Also, competition is positively linked to letters. Despite a substantial amount of literature that examines these FDA letters, this is the first paper that links brand sales, marketing, and lifecycle metrics to FDA received letters.

Direct-To-Consumer,Fda,Lifecycle

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Mark Uncles, University of New South Wales
Session 3.1.11B
Modeling Advertising
2

Advertising: The Effectiveness of Smaller Media and the Role of Self-Selection

Steffi Frison, KULeuven
Peter De Maeyer, Mahidol University
Marnik Dekimpe, Tilburg University, KU Leuven
Christophe Croux, KU Leuven


In this study, we conduct a large-scale empirical investigation to quantify the sales elasticity of smaller advertising media, such as billboards and cinema, which have often been neglected in the relevant academic literature. When making inference on the sales effectiveness of these small as well as the more traditional media (e.g. TV) for a +250 set of CPG brands, special attention is paid to the role of self-selection. The results of our analysis provide no meta-analytical evidence on the effectiveness of billboard nor cinema advertising, although significant results are obtained for TV and magazine advertising. They also underline the importance of correcting for self-selection bias when quantifying meta-analytic elasticities, not only for the smaller media, but also for the more traditional media.

Billboard,Cinema,Self-Selection

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Mark Uncles, University of New South Wales
Session 3.1.11B
Modeling Advertising
3

The Effects of Shared Consumption on Advertising Effectiveness for Movies

Sebastiano Delre, Bocconi University
Thijs Broekhuizen, University of Groningen
Tammo Bijmolt, University of Groningen



Consumers frequently consume hedonic products together and make purchase decisions according to the presence of others. The authors hypothesize that the importance consumers attach to shared consumption influences the effectiveness of advertising in generating launch and post-launch sales. An empirically validated Agent Based Model (ABM) simulates how advertising expenditures accelerate and/or acquire demand in the motion picture market, and how shared consumption may strengthen or weaken these effects. The simulation results show that shared consumption strengthens the acquisition effect of advertising, especially at launch.

Shared Consumption,Advertising,Motion Picture Market

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Mark Uncles, University of New South Wales
Session 3.1.11B
Modeling Advertising
4

Patterns of in-Media Consumption Behavior: The Case of Online Magazines

Kaye Chan, The University of New South Wales
Mark Uncles, University of NSW




In a world of declining subscription bases, magazine publishers are focusing on content to retain customers. We examine one aspect of content in the context of online subscription magazines, namely patterns of in-media consumption behaviour. These patterns are examined through the comparison of differences and similarities in Performance Measures (PMs) across magazine sections using the NBD-Dirichlet model, and evaluation of covariate (e.g. depth, breadth) effects using the Generalised Dirichlet model. A census panel of an online digital magazine is used. Results shows that magazine success depends on the number of subscribers not the number of usage occasions, and subscribers mostly are not exclusively loyal to one section but peruse a variety of sections. Our analysis provides a tool for publishers to evaluate content, and may well assist advertisers in media placement decisions.

Consumption Patterns,Media Metrics,Generalised Dirichlet Model

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Magdalena Cismaru, University of Regina
Session 3.1.9
Social Advertising
1

"One Text or Call Could Wreck It All”: The Role of the Extended Parallel Process Model in Guiding Campaigns Against Distracted Driving

Magdalena Cismaru, University of Regina





Studies show that texting while driving is widespread (Lennon, Rentfro, & O’Leary, 2010), leading to numerous accidents and deaths (Waugh, 2010). This article proposes using the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM; Witte, 1992; 1998) to understand texting while driving behaviors and to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of communication campaigns against distracted driving. This article also identifies, presents, and analyzes, in terms of their fit with EPPM, 11 campaigns against texting while driving. Results show existent campaigns are able to make drivers aware of the dangers associated with texting while driving but could do more to encourage behavior change.

Texting,Driving,Campaigns

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Magdalena Cismaru, University of Regina
Session 3.1.9
Social Advertising
2

Sustainability in Advertising: Impactful or Inert?

Shannon Cummins, University of Wisconsin - Whitewater
Tim Reilly, University of Minnesota-Duluth
Les Carlson, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Stephen Grove, Clemson University
Michael Dorsch, Clemson University

The ability of consumers to identify sustainable messages in environmental advertising and the effect of these messages is explored. A content analysis provides insight into these judges’ perception of the depth of environmental advertising messages. An experiment investigates the influence of sustainable messages and includes collection of cognitive response data to evaluate the cognitive dimension of sustainability messages. Content analysis results suggest that sustainability messages may influence how environmental advertisements are perceived. These findings are supported by the cognitive response data, which shows cognitive differences across advertisements, and the experimental manipulation that suggests sustainable ads may be more involving to consumers.

Sustainability,Advertising,Environmental

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Magdalena Cismaru, University of Regina
Session 3.1.9
Social Advertising
3

It’s not Only What You Say, but Also How You Say it: the Influence of Threat Type and Message Framing on Anti-Gambling Advertising

Liliana Bove, The University of Melbourne
Davide Orazi, The University of Melbourne
Jing Lei, The University of Melbourne



The effectiveness of public service announcements (PSAs) is commonly assessed by measuring the overall appraisal of the depicted threat and the proposed recommendation. This theoretical orientation is prone to overlooking the impact of specific message components regarding the nature and the valence of the advertised consequences. This study shows that both threat type (i.e., nature) and message framing (i.e., valence) have a significant influence on message effectiveness in an anti-gambling context, and that this relationship can be explained in terms of construal level activation. Low construal threats are easily processed and lead to positive attitudes towards the advertisement. Surprisingly, this leads to higher gambling intentions in comparison to high construal threats. Theoretical and managerial implications of these results are discussed.

Advertising,Social,Gambling

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications
Chair: Magdalena Cismaru, University of Regina
Session 3.1.9
Social Advertising
4

Building CSR Image Through Sport Sponsorship

Marc Mazodier, University of Nottingham Ningbo
Francois Carrillat, HEC Montreal
Carolin Plewa, University of Adelaide
Pascale Quester, University of Adelaide


This empirical research examines sport sponsorship as an initiative contributing to the sponsor’s socially responsible image. Statistical analysis performed on data collected among a panel sample of 400 adult consumers shows that CSR image benefits associated with sponsorships of grassroots sport properties can be achieved by national sports properties who actively engage in community initiatives. The property’s perceived need for support, on the other hand, appears irrelevant to the sponsor’s CSR image. Further probing demonstrates the instrumentality of altruistic motive inferences and CSR image as a sequential intervening chain of factors leading to greater purchase intentions for sponsors.

Sponsorship,Corporate Social Responsability,Perceived Motives

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Marketing Theory and New Paradigms
Chair: Roderick Brodie, Auckland University
Session 3.10.2
Co-creation and Engagement
1

Consumer Co-Creation as an Experience: What are the Dimensions at Stake in an Ideation Challenge?

Virginie De Barnier, Aix-Marseille University
Stephane Salgado, IAE AIX Graduate School of Management/ Arts et Métiers Paris Tech.
Anne Marie Guerin, IAE Aix Graduate School of Management



co-creation in innovation processes/projects is now a widespread phenomenon. It aims at ending-up with more valuable ideas, and enhancing market acceptance, As a consequence, ideation platforms such as Local Motors or E-Yeka, for example, achieve greater and greater success. Based on co-creation theory, we reassessed this approach introducing the experience view. The purpose of this research is to get a better understanding of the co-creation process from the consumer side, exploring the co-creation process as an experience and identifying its dimensions. An interpretative qualitative study is performed with 19 semi-structured interviews. The ideation contest key dimensions resulting from this study are hedonic/hedonism, utilitarian/utility, time pass/amount of time spent, social, and design experience perception. Finally, we present the theoretical and managerial implications.

Co-Creation,Idea Generation,Experience

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Marketing Theory and New Paradigms
Chair: Roderick Brodie, Auckland University
Session 3.10.2
Co-creation and Engagement
2

Applying Goal Theory to Understand Ongoing Engagement in Time Banks

Eleni Papaoikonomou, Rovira I Virgili University
Carmen Valor, Universidad Pontificia Comillas ICADE
Carlos Martínez De Ibarreta, Universidad Pontificia Comillas ICADE



Despite the increased membership in time banks, engagement of members is poor: few members conduct transactions and many remain inactive. Based on an online questionnaire, this paper identifies the main goals that individuals try to achieve when they join a time bank (focal goals) and examines the influence of the number of focal goals, the perceived achievement of these goals, and the alignment of focal and macro or life goals on the engagement with the time bank. We find that the main drivers of engagement are achievement of goals, alignment between focal and macro active goals, whilst the number of goals bears no influence on engagement.

Time Banks,Goal Theory,Collaborative Consumption

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Marketing Theory and New Paradigms
Chair: Roderick Brodie, Auckland University
Session 3.10.2
Co-creation and Engagement
3

Conceptualizing the Dynamic and Iterative Nature of Customer Engagement

Julia Fehrer, Bayreuth University
Herbert Woratschek, University of Bayreuth
Claas Christian Germelmann, University of Bayreuth



Along with the perspective shift in marketing theory towards a Service-Dominant (S-D) logic and the change in consumer behavior, due to new media, the Customer Engagement (CE) concept is gaining increasing levels of scholarly interest. However, a lack of empirical scrutiny exists in the current literature, regarding the dynamic and iterative nature of the CE concept. The present paper identifies relational concepts, which were used as antecedents and/or consequences of CE. The findings outline critical differences underpinning the nomological network analysis of CE. Thus it contributes to the theoretical development of CE and provides tangible implications for empirical research.

Customer Engagement,Antecedents And Consequences,Dynamic Processes

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Marketing Theory and New Paradigms
Chair: Roderick Brodie, Auckland University
Session 3.10.2
Co-creation and Engagement
4

Engagement: A Key Bridging Concept Facilitating Scholarly Understanding of the Service-Dominant Logic

Roderick Brodie, Auckland University
Linda Hollebeek, Univeristy of Waikato
Sandra Smith, University of Auckland



The service-dominant (S-D) logic provides an intergrative perspective of markets and marketing which is a precursor for a general theory. However due to its general and abstract nature the language and concepts of the S-D logic are disconnected from the empirical world. Thus there the need for language and concepts that provide this connection. We propose ‘engagement’ as a key bridging concept. A thematic analysis of 44 articles about S-D logic and engagement provides support for this proposition.

Engagement,Theorising,Lexicon

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Marketing Theory and New Paradigms
Chair: Liliana Bove, University of Melbourne
Session 3.10.3
New Perspectives on Customers and Marketing
1

Extending Marketing’s Influence Earlier in the Development Cycle: Exploring Marketing Effects in the Future Smart Electricity Grid

David Langley, TNO
Daniël Worm, TNO




Marketing needs innovative approaches to show its influence at an early stage of product development. We propose an approach, building on simulation modeling, for exploring marketing effects for technology-driven infrastructural innovations. As a use case we apply our approach to the smart grid. We connect technical (infrastructural) and social network models, including relevant consumer attitudes, behavioral intentions and choices as well as social influence. We simulate the effects of variable pricing for electricity and the strong promotion of solar panels on consumers’ choices and on knock-on effects on the supply grid. Results suggest that consumers in the smart grid will be open to flexible demand, foregoing supply at peak prices, and that strong promotion of solar panels may lead to more, not less, power outages.

Simulation,Agent-Based Model,Choice Behavior

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Marketing Theory and New Paradigms
Chair: Liliana Bove, University of Melbourne
Session 3.10.3
New Perspectives on Customers and Marketing
2

Revisiting Fear Appeal Theory: A Psychological Entropy Paradigm

Davide Orazi, The University of Melbourne
Liliana Bove, The University of Melbourne
Jing Lei, The University of Melbourne



This article expands and reinterprets prior work on fear appeals, contending that major inconsistencies in fear appeal research may arise from the assumptions of versatility, fear centrism and automatic compliance. Through the theory of psychological entropy, the authors challenge these assumptions and contend that behavioural change is driven mainly by the appeal recipient’s evaluation of conflicting goals. This evaluation, emotionally experienced as anxiety, aims at reducing psychological entropy, or the level of decisional uncertainty within an individual. By shifting the paradigm from fear arousal to anxiety and goal conflict, this research provides an interpretative framework that may help clarify the elaboration process that arises from a fear appeal targeting compulsive behaviours. Additionally, it provides implications for the design and evaluation of fear-based public service announcements.

Advertising,Uncertainty,Behaviour

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Marketing Theory and New Paradigms
Chair: Liliana Bove, University of Melbourne
Session 3.10.3
New Perspectives on Customers and Marketing
3

Emergency Purchasing Situations: Implications for Consumer Decision-Making

Benjamin Voyer, ESCP Europe
Alain Samson, London School of Economics
Minas Kastanakis, ESCP Europe Business School



We introduce Emergency Purchasing Situations (EPS) as a distinct buying context. EPS arise as a result of an unexpected need or timing of a need, and lead consumers to take a decision within a relatively short time frame. We integrate largely disconnected strands of research and theories relevant to EPS and offers a series of independent propositions to understand how these situations might affect consumer decision making, specifically heuristic versus reflective information processing in product evaluation. We discuss changes induced by the buying context in terms of regulatory focus, perceived time pressure and stress and offer avenues for future research.

Emergency Buying,Consumer Decision-Making,Dual Systems

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Marketing Theory and New Paradigms
Chair: Liliana Bove, University of Melbourne
Session 3.10.3
New Perspectives on Customers and Marketing
4

Improving Agent-Based Models Of Diffusion Effects

Robert East, Kingston University
Mark Uncles, Australian School of Business, UNSW
Jenni Romaniuk, Ehrenberg-Bass Institute, UNISA
Francesca Dall'Olmo Riley, Kingston Business School, London


We argue that agent-based modeling, as currently practiced, suffers from two deficiencies. First, the assumptions are often unverified and, second, these assumptions may be insufficient. Deficiencies in this new method may be overlooked because researchers are affected by the heuristics and biases in judgment revealed by Kahneman (2011). Building aggregate effects from individual behavior will be assisted when more is known about the influence mechanisms that operate in the social network. We give examples of model deficiencies, evidence on assumptions that is now available, and list influence mechanisms that must be studied if this type of modeling is to advance.

Agent-Based Modeling,Word Of Mouth,Diffusion

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Marketing Theory and New Paradigms
Chair: Roderick Brodie, Auckland University
Session 3.10.4
Emerging Issues in Theory and Research
1

Consumer Dominant Semiotics: Aspects of an Emerging Marketing Paradigm

Thomas Boysen Anker, University of Glasgow





Extant research has established consumer dominance as a significant phenomenon in contemporary marketing. Theoretical groundwork has convincingly argued for a distinctive consumer dominant paradigm. However, the conceptual underpinnings of consumer dominance are yet to be explored. This paper builds on and progresses existing research in the area through a semiotic analysis of consumer dominant brand narratives and their potential impact on brands. Drawing on Peirce’s theory of signs, the focal point of the paper is the notion of consumer dominant sign-chains and their impact on consumer interpretants and brands understood as both a phenomenological and ontological object.

Semiotics,Paradigm,Brand-Narrative

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Marketing Theory and New Paradigms
Chair: Roderick Brodie, Auckland University
Session 3.10.4
Emerging Issues in Theory and Research
2

Developing a Comprehensive Business Sustainability Index Based Upon The Triple Bottom Line (TBL) Approach

Daniel Petzer, North-West university
Göran Svensson, Oslo School of Management
Nils Høgevold, Oslo School of Management
Carmen Padin, Vigo University
Hb Klopper, Monash South Africa
Carlos Ferro, Vigo University

It is imperative that all organisations should become sustainable over the long-run, but many are not familiar with these practices and the impact thereof. Various efforts have been made to develop business sustainability measures but their effectiveness and influence remain limited. The aim of this study is to develop a comprehensive Business Sustainability Index (BSI) for organisations to benchmark, measure and monitor the magnitude and impact of its sustainable business practices. A questionnaire was developed to measure 20 possible dimensions of business sustainability. Data obtained from Norwegian businesses was analysed and resulted in a17-dimensional factor solution providing empirical support for a valid and reliable second-order construct of a BSI based upon a triple bottom line (TBL) approach.

Business Sustainability Index,Triple Bottom Line (tbl) Approach,Economic, Social And Environmental Dimensions

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Marketing Theory and New Paradigms
Chair: Roderick Brodie, Auckland University
Session 3.10.4
Emerging Issues in Theory and Research
3

Linking Strategy-As-Practice Knowledge and Multi-Stakeholder Brand Meaning Co-Creation: Insights from a Small, Non-Commercial Institutional Context

Christine Vallaster, University of Liechtenstein
Sylvia Von Wallpach, University of Innsbruck




In this paper, we adopt a strategy-as-practice perspective and establish a link to the practices of brand meaning co-creation. We contribute empirical insights gained in the context of a small, non-commercial institution. The results show that brand meaning co-creation is a fluid, social phenomenon that involves practices which are determined by the relevant context of company internal and external stakeholders. Also, the particularities in brand management that come about when a number of stakeholder groups co-create brand meaning are crystallized.

Strategy-As-Practice,Brand Meaning Co-Creation,Kindergarten Context

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Marketing Theory and New Paradigms
Chair: Roderick Brodie, Auckland University
Session 3.10.4
Emerging Issues in Theory and Research
4

Methods for the Construction of A Management Discipline: An Applied Approach in Brazil

Roberto Falcao, University of Sao Paulo
Ana Ikeda, Business School (FEA/USP) - University of Sao Paulo
Guilherme Shiraishi, Business School (FEA/USP) - University of Sao Paulo



Knowledge of the history of a management discipline is of great importance for the understanding of its evolution and its current state. The importance of structuring historical methods related to the Brazilian context relies on the fact that there is a mismatch between what happened in developed countries, literature reference used in most school, and in Brazil, a country that recently gained worldwide prominence, but that is still poorly understood. This study adopted a qualitative approach and the analysis of academic documents. It is shown that most studies do not demonstrate clearly the use of methods for the historical building.

Historical Method,Marketing Discipline,Brazil

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Pricing and Financial Issues in Marketing
Chair: Martin Natter, Goethe University
Session 3.13.1
Pay What You Want Pricing
1

Understanding Pay-What-You-Want Pricing: The Impact of Situational, Cognitive and Emotional Factors on Behavioral Outcomes

Manuel Stegemann, Muenster University





Pay-What-You-Want is a participative pricing mechanism that has gained increased interest from practice and academia. While previous research focused on situational factors and neglected cognitive and emotional aspects involved in consumers´ price determination process, this study is the first one with an integrated approach (situational, cognitive and emotional aspects) for a better understanding of the price determination process in PWYW situations. The author shows that consumption occasion, normative social influence and customer satisfaction have an impact on consumers´ price determination and that cognitions, positive and negative emotions are involved in this process, too. Furthermore, PWYW can lead to higher revenues for the seller, mainly driven by new customers.

Pay-What-You-Want,Participative Pricing,Willingness To Pay

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Pricing and Financial Issues in Marketing
Chair: Martin Natter, Goethe University
Session 3.13.1
Pay What You Want Pricing
2

Pay-What-You-Want – A Field Experiment on Anonymity and Reference Price Cues

Essi Pöyry, Aalto University
Petri Parvinen, Aalto University




Pay-what-you-want (PWYW) is an empirically under-researched pricing method in which consumers have full control over the price they pay. The social norms of perceived anonymity of the payment and reference price cues are expected to affect how much customers pay. A 2x2 field experiment shows that reference prices but also payment anonymity influence the price paid significantly even when the purchase decision phase occurs online. The sales revenues of the best condition beat the worst by 116%. The experiment increased comparable year-to-year sales by 45%, net sales margin by 40% and increased new customer attraction rate by 28%.

Pay-What-You-Want,Anonymity,Reference Price

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Pricing and Financial Issues in Marketing
Chair: Martin Natter, Goethe University
Session 3.13.1
Pay What You Want Pricing
3

The Moderating Role of Loyalty and Satisfaction on The Effectiveness of Altruistic and Egoistic Motivation in Pay What You Want Situations

Frank Huber, University of Mainz
Eva Appelmann, University of Mainz
Frederik Meyer, University of Mainz



The purpose of this paper is to identify motivation underlying voluntary payments in anonymous pay what you want settings on the internet. Considering Batson’s theoretical framework of altruistic and egoistic motivated helping behavior we seek to find out how a customers’ extent of loyalty and satisfaction influence motivation to pay. For this purpose we split the sample into four groups as combinations of these two factors. Satisfaction turns out to dominate the effectiveness of the motivation to pay as satisfied customers tend to altruistically motivated payments while dissatisfied customers pay out of an egoistic motivation, irrespective the level of loyalty.

Participative Pricing,Altruism,Egoism

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Pricing and Financial Issues in Marketing
Chair: Bernd Skiera, Frankfurt University
Session 3.13.2
Marketing-Finance Interface
1

Sentiment, Customer Satisfaction and Stock Returns: Higher Performance During Pessimistic Periods

Kuan-Ling Lai, National Sun Yat-Sen University
Miao-Ling Chen, National Sun Yat-Sen University
Chi-Lu Peng, Chung Hua University



Motivated by a lack of understanding for how investors’ emotional states affect their perceptions and valuations of customer satisfaction, this study employs a direct sentiment index to examine whether and how sentiment influences the stock market’s reaction to customer satisfaction. The evidence suggests that it is possible to beat the market consistently with investment strategies based on customer satisfaction, especially when investors hold their pessimistic beliefs about the market. The main contribution of this study is that firms with higher intangible assets such as having highly satisfied customers provide firms an insurance-like protection against market pessimism.

Sentiment,Mispricing,Satisfaction

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Pricing and Financial Issues in Marketing
Chair: Bernd Skiera, Frankfurt University
Session 3.13.2
Marketing-Finance Interface
2

Perceived Quality and Firm Risk: Does the Analyst Translate?

Christoph Lieflaender, RWTH Aachen University
Malte Brettel, RWTH Aachen University




Customers’ perceptions of quality are a leading indicator of firm success and risk. Therefore, the question arises concerning how customer-based perceptions of quality are channeled to financial markets. Financial analysts assume the task of consolidating value-related information for investors. However, whether they incorporate information concerning perceived quality in their earnings forecasts remains in doubt. With a unique dataset of daily perceived quality information in the US, the UK, and Germany between 2008 and 2011, this study analyzes the impact of perceived quality on firm risk and shows that positive earnings surprises mediate the association between perceived quality and firm risk.

Perceived Quality,Analyst Earnings Forecasts,Firm Risk

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Pricing and Financial Issues in Marketing
Chair: Bernd Skiera, Frankfurt University
Session 3.13.2
Marketing-Finance Interface
3

Does Too Much Disclosure About Customers Hurt Firms?

Bernd Skiera, Frankfurt University
Emanuel Bayer, University of Frankfurt
Kapil Tuli, Singapore Management University



Investors, analysts, and regulators argue for greater disclosure of non-financial metrics, such as customer metrics. In contrast, managers typically complain that they are costly to report and reveal sensitive information to competitors, which lowers profitability and thus future cash flows. This study is the first that develops a score to measure the extent of customer metrics disclosure, manually codes 365 annual reports in the telecommunications industry, and analyzes the consequences of customer metrics disclosure. Results show that higher disclosure of forward-looking information on customer metrics lowers analysts’ and investors’ uncertainty. In contrast to managers' complaints, the authors also find that both backward- and forward-looking disclosures on customer metrics have a positive effect on future cash flows.

Disclosure,Marketing-Finance Interface,Firm Performance

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Pricing and Financial Issues in Marketing
Chair: Tatiana Sokolova
Session 3.13.3
Pricing and Consumer Behavior
1

A Way Around the Left-Digit Bias? The Role of Mental Number Representations in Rounding Decisions

Tatiana Sokolova, HEC Paris
Manoj Thomas, Johnson Graduate School of Management, Cornell University




Why are consumers’ price judgments anchored on prices’ leftmost digits and when do people round fractional prices (e.g., $2.99 to $3.00) during mental computations? Three experiments show that increasing the saliency of analog representations or reducing the saliency of symbolic representations can influence rounding. Increasing the saliency of analog representations through an unrelated picture-matching task increases the propensity to round fractional numbers during mental computations (Study 1). Reducing the saliency of symbolic representations through memory-based processing also increases the propensity to round fractional numbers (Study 2 and Study 3). Implications for the left-digit bias in price evaluations are discussed.

Behavioral Pricing,Left-Digit Bias,Analog And Symbolic Number Representations

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Pricing and Financial Issues in Marketing
Chair: Tatiana Sokolova
Session 3.13.3
Pricing and Consumer Behavior
2

Customer Acceptance of Usage Behavior-Based Prices

Patrick Sihler, University of Hohenheim
Markus Voeth, University of Hohenheim




Usage behavior-based pricing is a frequently discussed innovative approach in designing more efficient value propositions for services of which the operating cost heavily depends on customer behavior. Although it is beneficial for most market participants, providers are still holding off, worrying about customer acceptance. This paper presents a novel approach in explaining customer acceptance, capturing prior knowledge on how price model design influences customer choice. With an empirical study, we prove that customer support of the design of the price model is even more decisive than value for money. We identify four effects that influence customer evaluation: Price coupling, price ambiguity, smart shopping and self-commitment. Based on our results, better value propositions can be developed to foster the success of usage behavior-based prices.

Usage Behavior-Based Pricing,Mental Accounting,Tariff Choice

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Pricing and Financial Issues in Marketing
Chair: Tatiana Sokolova
Session 3.13.3
Pricing and Consumer Behavior
3

Investors’ Risk Behavior in Times of Crisis: A Cross Cultural Study

Nikos Kalogeras, Maastricht University
Joost M.E. Pennings, Maastricht University
George Baourakis, MAICh/CIHEAM
Koert Van Ittersum, Groningen University


Recent research shows that by decoupling the risk response behavior of individual market participants into the separate components of risk perception and risk attitude, a more robust conceptualization and prediction of risk behavior is possible. Furthermore, it was argued that the influence of risk attitudes and risk perception on behavior can be used to formulate effective marketing strategies and public policies in case of crisis. The question that arises is whether or not the influence of these risk variables changes over time and, hence, whether marketing strategies and policies must be adapted. The financial crisis in Germany, the Netherlands, and Greece in 2009 and 2012 provides us with a natural experiment to examine the relationship between risk attitudes, risk perceptions, and individual investors’ risk behavior over time. Implications for marketing-management, financial policy, and investment consulting are discussed.

Risk Attitude,Risk Perception,Financial Crisis

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Jay Singh, Kingston University
Session 3.14.10
Brand Decisions
1

What Drives Private Label Success? A Meta-Analytical Approach

Julian Hofmann, University of Southern Denmark
Oliver Schnittka, University of Southern Denmark
Carsten Erfgen, University of Hamburg
Katharina Kersten, University of Hamburg


The implementation of private labels in retailers’ assortments has tremendously increased within the last years due to private labels’ positive effect on customers’ store loyalty and store profitability. Therefore, numerous studies have empirically analyzed drivers of private label success. However, the results for several drivers are mixed. Thus, this paper is first to conduct a meta-analysis regarding the drivers of private label success and their direction of influence. The meta-analysis comprises 32 empirical studies and analyses the effect of 43 drivers on private label success. The results provide valuable implications for retailers for how to manage private labels more successfully.

Private Labels,Retail Management,Meta-Analysis

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Jay Singh, Kingston University
Session 3.14.10
Brand Decisions
2

To Brand not to Brand or Both? Consequences for Dual-Brand Firms

Nicolas Ochoa, Carlos III University
Julio Cerviño, Carlos III University
Jaime Rivera, Carlos III University



In addition to produce their own brands, dual-brand firms also supply private labels for particular retailers. Some leading Spanish brands such as Don Simón, Mahou and Carbonell, have been involved in this practice. Are these firms digging their own graves? The purpose of this study is to understand some reasons behind this phenomenon on Spanish retail market. We explored economical and relational motives of supplying store brands (SBs) by national brand (NB) manufacturers. Our results suggest that dual-brand firms obtain: (1) better treat from retailers, (2) superior economies of scale and, (3) greater negotiation power.

Store Brands,Dual-Brand Firms,Store Brand'S Manufacturers

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Jay Singh, Kingston University
Session 3.14.10
Brand Decisions
3

Local Brands in Emerging Markets: Factors for Success

Joan Llonch, Autonomous University of Barcelona
Miguel Angel López-Lomelí, Tecnológico de Monterrey (Campus Guadalajara) Mexico
Jorge Eduardo Gómez, Tecnológico de Monterrey (Campus Guadalajara) Mexico



As a result of global firms´ efforts to build international brands, the foreign brand expansion into new geographies have threatened local brands´ businesses. Interestingly, some local brands have successfully faced the competition from foreign brands. This paper aims to determine some of the factors that enabled local brands to be successfully against competition in emerging markets. Results from a survey in Mexico suggest that brand quality and prestige, bias in favor of local brands and brand familiarity positively influence local brands purchase likelihood. For younger consumers, Perceived Brand Localness should also be considered as a positive influence on brand purchase likelihood.

Local Brands,Global Brands,Emerging Markets

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Claas Christian Germelmann, University of Bayreuth
Session 3.14.11
Brands in the Internet
1

The Impact of Brand Strength on Consumers’ Reactions Towards E-WOM

Alexander Mafael, Freie Universität Berlin
Sabrina Gottschalk, Freie Universität Berlin
Henning Kreis, Freie Universität Berlin
Alexandra Deckert, Freie Universität Berlin


Prior research has demonstrated a strong influence of eWOM on consumers. However, it is not known whether individuals react differently to eWOM when it concerns a strong brand rather than a weak brand. This paper therefore examines the impact of brand strength (high vs. low) on consumers’ reaction towards positive and negative eWOM. We look at reactions on both, the perception level, i.e. perceived positivity and negativity of eWOM, as well as on the behavioural level, i.e. purchase intention. Results of an experimental study (n=314) show that (positive as well as negative) eWOM has a stronger influence on purchase intention for weak brands as compared to strong brands. At a perception level, however, negative messages are seen as more negative when concerning strong brands rather than weak brands.

Brand Strength,Ewom,Online Reviews

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Claas Christian Germelmann, University of Bayreuth
Session 3.14.11
Brands in the Internet
2

Can Online Anti-Brand Communities Devalue Sponsorship Engagements? Findings from a Mixed Methods Study from the Sports Context

Bastian Popp, Bayreuth University
Claas Christian Germelmann, University of Bayreuth/Department of Marketing
Herbert Woratschek, University of Bayreuth/Department of Service Management



The internet has given rise to anti-brand communities which are forming around common aversions toward brands. We illuminate this phenomenon in the context of social networking sites and consider effects on sponsorships of the opposed brand. Therefore, we conduct a mixed method study of Facebook-organized anti-brand communities using the brand FC Bayern Muenchen and its main sponsor Deutsche Telekom. Our findings reveal that community membership negatively influences both attitude and purchase intention toward the sponsor of the anti-brand. Consequently, we establish the relevance of anti-brand communities for both the brand and their sponsors and derive marketing implications.

Anti-Brand Communities,Sponsorship,Social Media

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Claas Christian Germelmann, University of Bayreuth
Session 3.14.11
Brands in the Internet
3

Brands and the Virtual Self: Network Effects on Self-Congruent Facebook ‘likes’, and Brand Outcomes

Elaine Wallace, National University of Ireland
Isabel Buil, University of Zaragoza
Leslie De Chernatony, Aston University Business School, UK



Consumers’ use of brands has been widely studied in offline contexts. However, its examination in online social networks, such as Facebook, is more recent. This study investigates whether network structure influences the extent to which ‘Liked’ brands are self-congruent. It also explores the relationship between self-congruent ‘Liked’ brands and brand love and word of mouth (WOM). A survey of 438 Facebook users reveals that attitudinal homophily affects tie strength, which in turn positively influences ‘Likes’ of self-congruent brands. When brands ‘Liked’ are more self congruent,brand love and WOM are also greater. Further, brand love for ‘Liked’ brands enhances WOM.

Brands,Self-Congruence,Facebook

Friday, 6 June 2014

17:00-18:00
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Elaine Wallace, National University of Ireland
Session 3.14.12
Perspectives in Branding
1

Discursive Brand Solidarisation - An Action Net Perspective

Verena E. Stoeckl, Innsbruck University
Sabrina Gabl, University of Innsbruck
Sylvia Von Wallpach, University of Innsbruck
Andrea Hemetsberger, University of Innsbruck


This article combines literature on consumer brand engagement with Action Net Theory in order to understand the discursive construction of brand solidarisation in the case of a traditional, national chocolate producer. Brand-related online discourse reveals four main discursive threads that solidarise through setting boundaries to the object of solidarisation, discussing who to solidarise with and how, and linking solidarisation to market mechanisms and grand societal and political discourse. These findings suggest going beyond individual engagement behaviour and add a social level of solidary action to engagement literature. Complementary discourse attempts to non-solidarise or terminate solidarisation.

Brand Engagement,Action Nets Theory,Discursive Solidarisation

Friday, 6 June 2014

17:00-18:00
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Elaine Wallace, National University of Ireland
Session 3.14.12
Perspectives in Branding
2

Proactive Personality and Resistance to Change. A Study of the Moderating Effects of Corporate Identity Management in the Banking Sector

Rafael Bravo, University of Saragossa
Jorge Matute, Universidad de Zaragoza
José M. Pina, Universidad de Zaragoza



The main goal in this paper is to analyse the moderating effects of proactive personality and resistance to change in a model of corporate identity management (CIM). The model is applied to the banking sector, and it is focused on the consequences that CIM may have on the attitudes and behaviours of the branch managers. A total of 293 valid questionnaires were gathered from, and analysed through SEM and multisample analysis. Results show that organizational identification play a key role, and employees’ proactive personality and resistance to change exert a moderating influence on the way identification leads to employees’ extra-role behaviours. These results enhance the understanding of the CIM effects and may help brand managers in banks to be aware of the different effects of CIM on the branch managers

Corporate Identity Management,Proactive Behaviour,Resistance To Change

Friday, 6 June 2014

17:00-18:00
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Elaine Wallace, National University of Ireland
Session 3.14.12
Perspectives in Branding
3

The Personality of Luxury Brands

Alexandra Karpova, Cass Business School - City University London
George Balabanis, Cass Business School




This paper argues for and develops a new luxury brand personality measure. Drawing on recent criticisms of the applicability of Aaker’s (1997) brand personality scale, an attempt is made to develop a new measure that can better capture the particularities of luxury brands. The measure is based on the actual language commonly used by consumers to describe luxury brands across different sectors. Extensive online text mining and in-depth interviews were used to develop an initial pool of luxury brand descriptors. After a screening of personality traits from other image descriptors, lexical analysis based on the semantic differences of personality traits resulted in a new typology of luxury brand personality traits. The reported results represent the initial stage of a bigger development project that will assess the scale in further empirical tests.

Brand Personality,Luxury Brands,Lexical Analysis

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Maria Avello, Complutense University of Madrid
Session 3.14.9
Brand Commitment and Attachment
1

Measuring Affective Commitment to the Employer Brand

Susana Fernandez-Lores, Complutense University of Madrid
Francis Blasco, Complutense University of Madrid
Maria Avello, Complutense University of Madrid
Diana Gavilan, Complutense University of Madrid


The increasing importance of the relationship between an employee and his/her employer, has, in the last two decades, fuelled the application of marketing principles to human resource management, giving rise to the theoretical substance of employer branding. Its main objectives are to attract talent to an organization and engender commitment. Various different factors have shown themselves to be capable of contributing to such brand commitment. This study explores the experience concept of the employer brand and its impact on affective commitment, proposing a three-dimensional structure, similar to that of the consumer brand experience. The results obtained demonstrate the positive effect of the three experiential propositions on affective commitment. A positive experience with the employer brand is important in making the employee develop an affective commitment towards the brand.

Employer Branding,Brand Experience,Affective Commitment

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Maria Avello, Complutense University of Madrid
Session 3.14.9
Brand Commitment and Attachment
2

Self-Categorization, Community Affective Commitment, and Community Self-Esteem in Virtual Brand Communities: A Comparison Between Posters and Lurkers

Sahar Mousavi, Manchester Business School
Kathy Keeling, Manchester Business School
Stuart Roper, Manchester Business School



Drawing on social identity theory, this study develops a conceptual model of building brand commitment in virtual brand communities (VBCs). This research distinguishes between cognitive, affective, and evaluative components of social identity in VBCs and proposes how these components instigate members’ brand commitment and their subsequent behaviour. The authors elaborate on the nature of social identity in VBCs and articulate a member-level conceptual framework that offers propositions regarding the key determinants and consequences of members’ (both lurkers and posters) commitment towards the brand around which the community is developed.

Virtual Brand Communities,Brand Commitment,Social Identity

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Maria Avello, Complutense University of Madrid
Session 3.14.9
Brand Commitment and Attachment
3

What Drives Brand Attachment?

Arnold Japutra, Oxford Brookes University
Yuksel Ekinci, Oxford Brookes University
Lyndon Simkin, Henley Business School



Brand attachment has been regarded as a key requisite in a brand’s success and performance. Consequently, it is important to understand on how to build stronger brand attachment. Brand attachment’s conceptualisation itself has moved from capturing not only emotional but also cognitive bonding. Previous research investigated only the emotional bond, whereas this study investigated also the cognitive bond. The present paper proposes and tests a conceptual framework of the drivers of brand attachment. Based on a survey of 276 UK household consumers, we find that there are four important drivers of brand attachment – self-congruence, sensory and intellectual brand experience, and CSR associations. In addition, the study finds that brand attachment has a statistically significant effect on brand loyalty. Theoretical contributions and managerial implications are discussed.

Brand Attachment,Brand Experience,Csr Associations

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Product and Brand Management
Chair: Maria Avello, Complutense University of Madrid
Session 3.14.9
Brand Commitment and Attachment
4

Dear Brand, Please Help me to Become a True-Man Out of the Truman: The Role of Brand Authenticity

Lucia Malaer, Bern University
Felicitas Morhart, University of Lausanne
Florent Girardin, University of Lausanne
Amélie Guèvremont, Concordia University
Bianca Grohmann, Concordia University

Although brand authenticity is gaining increasing interest in academia and managerial practice, empirical studies on its contribution to the branding literature are still limited. The authors therefore conceptually and empirically examine the emergence and outcomes of perceived brand authenticity (PBA). A prior multi-phase scale development process resulted in a 17-item PBA scale to measure its four dimensions of credibility, integrity, symbolism, and longevity. Brand authenticity perceptions are influenced by indexical, existential, and iconic cues, whereby the latter’s influence is moderated by consumers’ level of marketing skepticism. Further, PBA increases emotional brand attachment. This relationship is particularly strong for consumers with a high level of self-authenticity. In addition, PBA effects are stronger in a North American market context compared to a European context.

Brand Authenticity,Self-Authenticating Acts,Emotional Brand Attachment

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Maryline Schultz, Novancia Business School Paris
Session 3.16.10
Consumer Psychology
1

Creating Closeness in Retailing: Comparing Retailers and Consumers Perspectives

Damien Chaney, ESC- Troyes
Maryline Schultz, Novancia Business School Paris




This article investigates the ill understood notion of closeness in retailing. Using a qualitative study with 69 semi-structured interviews, we show how retailers as well as consumers relate to closeness. The results point out that the notion of closeness can be divided in two different perspectives: a practical perspective and a symbolic perspective. Seven dimensions are identified and defined: access, functional, process, assortment, relational, identity and integration closeness.

Closeness,Proximity,Convenience Store

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Maryline Schultz, Novancia Business School Paris
Session 3.16.10
Consumer Psychology
2

It Might be Exciting, but I'm not in Mood Today. Mall Atmospherics, Shopping Behavior, and Mood States.

Raúl Pérez López, University of Saragossa
Laura Lucia Palacios, University of Saragossa
Yolanda Polo Redondo, University of Saragossa



This research aims to demonstrate how both valence and arousal of incidental moods can moderate the relationship between the level of atmospheric arousal in a mall environment setting and shopping behavior among shoppers. Our methodology is based on SEM and data were collected conducting a 4x2 experiment among 221 participants. Our results show that atmospheric arousal has different effects on shopping behavior depending on shoppers’ mood states. Purposely, atmospheric arousal has a negative effect on shopping behavior for consumers in a positive low-arousal mood, while the effect is positive in the other cases. Mall managers should be careful with the levels of excitement created with atmospherics cues in order to maximize both consumers’ welfare and shopping behavior.

Atmospherics,Arousal,Shopping

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Maryline Schultz, Novancia Business School Paris
Session 3.16.10
Consumer Psychology
3

Inspire to Delight: the Effects of Customer Inspiration on Consumers’ Purchase Decisions

Thilo Pfrang, University of St. Gallen
Thomas Rudolph, University of St. Gallen
Tim Böttger, University of St. Gallen



In an affluent consumer society characterized by an abundance of products and information customers with high demands seek new inspiration and individual solutions. However customer inspiration (CI) has hardly been considered in marketing research yet. This study explores the psychological mechanisms of CI as a new concept in marketing as well as its effects on intentional and behavioral outcome variables. Findings indicate that CI can significantly influence loyalty and purchase amount. The positive loyalty effect is partially mediated by customer delight (CD) and positive affect (PA). Unplanned spending occurs as a result of a mental process leading from CI across PA and CD. Implications for retailers are discussed and directions for future research identified.

Customer Inspiration,Shopper Behavior,Field Study

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Maryline Schultz, Novancia Business School Paris
Session 3.16.10
Consumer Psychology
4

Intuitive Judgments Effects on Consumer’s Evaluation of o Product Assortment: a Preliminary Study

Yolande Piris, Pantheon-Assas Paris II University
Nathalie Guibert, Pantheon-Assas Paris II University




In this paper, we apply Intuition Theory to the understanding of consumer’s choice in stores. Using perceived time for choosing and expertise in the product category as proxies, we distinguish between system 1 and system 2, respectively intuitive and deliberative, and in the former, we further distinguish between intuition based on expertise and intuition based on heuristics. For each decision process, we then explore organization and variety influences on consumers’ attitude and purchase intention. Our results (504 observations in 3 product categories, n = 184) suggest that while consumer’s evaluation in system 2 or in system 1 based on heuristics relies more heavily on assortment’s organization than on the variety displayed, intuitive judgment based on expertise relies almost equally on both.

Intuition,Assortment Evaluation,Expertise

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Patsy Perry, University of Manchester
Session 3.16.9
International Retailing
1

The Standardisation-Localisation Dilemma for Luxury Fashion Retailers’ Internationalisation into China

Sindy (ling) Liu, University of the Arts London
Patsy Perry, University of Manchester
Christopher Moore, Glasgow Caledonian University



This paper considers the standardisation-localisation debate within the context of foreign luxury fashion retailers’ internationalision into the Chinese market. Luxury retailers must balance the ‘global-local dilemma’, given the challenging trading conditions of an emerging marketplace with low brand awareness and loyalty alongside the need to maintain exclusivity and standardisation of brand image across all markets. Qualitative case study data from 22 luxury fashion retailers provide rich insights that reveal the decision-making process for marketing strategies that support entry into China. Findings indicate that foreign luxury retailers balance the ‘global-local dilemma’ in China firstly by locating operational management control within the strategic hub of Hong Kong, and secondly by greater entrepreneurism in marketing communications than seen in other mature markets.

Internationalization,Luxury,China

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Patsy Perry, University of Manchester
Session 3.16.9
International Retailing
2

Segmentation of Spatially Dependent Geographical Regions: Model and Application

Rahul Govind, The University of New South Wales
Rabikar Chatterjee, University of Pittsburgh
Vikas Mittal, Rice University



Spatially Contiguous segments are managerially more attractive in terms of logistical and administrative efficiencies. The research develops and tests a methodology that assigns geographical units into segments by simultaneously considering customer attitudes and the geographical contiguity of regions within the resulting segments. This approach uses regional consumer data to capture spatial dependence flexibly while allowing us to identify managerially actionable segments that effectively balance homogeneity and spatial contiguity. A Monte Carlo simulation and an illustrative empirical application demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. In particular, the simulation and empirical application illustrate the tradeoffs between the different approaches.

Geographical Segmentation,Spatial Models,Service Quality

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Retailing, Channel Management and Logistics
Chair: Patsy Perry, University of Manchester
Session 3.16.9
International Retailing
3

Inner Value Conflicts: Emotional and Behavioral Consequences of Cross-Border Shopping

Liane Nagengast, University of St. Gallen
Marc Linzmajer, University of St.Gallen
Thomas Rudolph, University of St.Gallen
Tim Böttger, University of St.Gallen


Motivated by potential savings, an increasing number of consumers travel to neighboring countries for the main purpose of shopping. This cross-border shopping might seriously harm local economies, for example in terms of revenue, unemployment, and social well-being. In a quasi-field experiment, we show that cross-border shoppers are aware of their irresponsible behavior and feel inner conflicts. These conflicts affect their emotions and their intended future purchase behaviors. As consumers’ inner conflicts depend on who they blame for the price differences (either national retailers or foreign economies), public policy makers should actively communicate the reasons for price differences between neighboring countries.

Cross-Border Shopping,Inner Conflicts,Attribution Theory

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Tor W. Andreassen, NHH Norwegian School of Economics
Session 3.18.10
Service Management
1

Conflict Management Styles and NSD Project Performance under Different Types of Conflict

Achilleas Boukis, University of Sussex





This study adopts a multilevel research approach drawing from both NSD project managers and participants in order to investigate how project manager’s selection of conflict-handling styles affects participants’ learning and resource allocation efficiency during NSD projects. In particular, the impact of five managerial conflict management styles (integrating, accommodating, compromising, forcing and avoiding) on participants’ learning and resource allocation efficiency is explored. In addition, the moderating effect of task and relationship conflict on the aforementioned effects are assessed.

Resource Allocation Efficiency,,Nsd Learning,Conflict Styles

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Tor W. Andreassen, NHH Norwegian School of Economics
Session 3.18.10
Service Management
2

The Effects of Competitor Orientation on Employees' and Market Performance

Anastasios Siampos, University of Strathclyde





This research decomposes the notion of market orientation into its three components and empirically examines the frontline employees’ and market performance of a competitor-orientated strategy in the banking sector. Our findings indicate that frontline employees’ performance is affected positively and in a strong level by implementing a competitor- orientated strategy at the supervisors’ or at the frontline employees’ level. When such a strategy is implemented at the frontline employees’ level, the market performance of the branch is improved in a moderate level, while supervisors’ competitor orientation has no significant effect on the aforementioned performance indicator.

Banking,Market Orientation,Frontline Employees Performance

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Tor W. Andreassen, NHH Norwegian School of Economics
Session 3.18.10
Service Management
3

Automation, Inconvenience and Compensation: A Dynamic View on Service Productivity

Rutger Van Oest, BI Norwegian Business School
Tor Andreassen, NHH Bergen
Line Olsen, BI Norwegian Business School



The authors extend the seminal article by Rust and Huang (2012) by developing a dynamic simulation model that includes customer inconvenience during a service company’s transition from labor to automation. The proposed framework can be used to determine the company’s optimal level of automation and selling price of the service as well as the speed at which labor should be substituted and the price should be adjusted. Our findings include the following. Gradual rather than instant substitution is more profitable if customers need time to adjust to the automation, even if automation itself is cost efficient. The company would not automate enough if it does not optimize the degree of automation and the selling price jointly. Automation can be used to increase demand in a price elastic market, even though demand may drop temporarily.

Productivity,Automation,Inconvenience

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Tor W. Andreassen, NHH Norwegian School of Economics
Session 3.18.10
Service Management
4

Analyzing Industrial Services from a Customer Perspective

Richard Wonner, Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt
Jens Hogreve, Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt




Service-led growth is a popular but rarely reached objective among industrial companies. However, current research analyses this important strategy mainly from a supplier perspective. Instead, we define a framework of industrial service buying behavior and therefore shed light on the customer perspective. Our findings show that buying behavior of product-related services is not affected by customer treatment but mainly influenced by price perception. Thus, it can hardly be influenced by the manufacturer while the opposite is true for customer-related services. However, relationship investments are shown to help customers to turn from make to buy decisions as regards industrial services.

Business-To-Business,Service Management,Relationship Marketing

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Spiros Gounaris, University of Strathclyde
Session 3.18.9
Customer Loyalty
1

Impact of Switching Costs on Loyalty Types, Customer Engagement and Switching – A Meta-Analysis in Service Markets

Martin Eisend, European University Viadrina
Doreén Pick, Freie Universität Berlin




Marketing research focused on the influence of switching costs on customer switching. However, switching costs might impact much more variables than switching only. In this article, we synthesize results from 145 independent samples in 128 manuscripts and test several causal meta-analytic models of the consequences of switching costs in services. We can show that switching costs not only influence switching of customers but also impact several types of loyalty and customer engagement behavior (CEB). We further tested how different variables such as markets (B2C vs. B2B) moderate the effects of switching costs on dependent variables.

Switching Costs,Meta-Analysis,Customer Engagement

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Spiros Gounaris, University of Strathclyde
Session 3.18.9
Customer Loyalty
2

Experiential Value Dimensions, Perceived Value and Loyalty in the Hospitality Sector

Martina Gallarza, University of Valencia
Giacomo Del Chiappa, Department of Economics and Business, University of Sassari CRENoS and RCEA
Francisco Arteaga, Universidad Católica de Valencia



Relying on an experiential approach, this paper looks for causal relations between experiential value dimensions (functional, social, emotional and altruistic), overall perceived value and loyalty. A SEM model is tested with PLS on a sample of 300 tourists in Sardinia (Italy). Findings confirm the coexistence of experiential value dimensions and their cumulative effects on perceived value and loyalty. Specifically, social and altruistic values were found being stronger antecedents of loyalty than of perceived value, while functional value is not linked to loyalty. Overall, direct influences of value experiential dimensions on loyalty, although existing, are rather weak. They are better explained through perceived value.

Experiential Values,Loyalty,Hospitality

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Spiros Gounaris, University of Strathclyde
Session 3.18.9
Customer Loyalty
3

Loyalty-Based Segmentation in Apparel Retailing: Evidence from an Experiential Marketing Approach

Maria Eugenia Ruiz Molina, University of Valencia
Martina G.Gallarza, Universidad de Valencia
Irene Gil-Saura, Universidad de Valencia



Any value conceptualization is a good lens for conducting segmentation, but experiential approaches are especially valuable as experiential marketing highlights the intrinsically personal relativity of consumption behavior. This paper explores the existence of differentiated segments of service customers (fashion shoppers) by knowing which experiential value dimensions most influence customer loyalty in a service (retailing) setting. Through a CHAID analysis, three segments were identified: emotional (play) and altruistic (ethics) values appear to be the most relevant for segmenting customers based on their loyalty to the apparel store chain. Findings reveal the usefulness of the experiential marketing approach in loyalty-based segmentation.

Experiential Value,Value Dimensions,Loyalty

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Services Marketing
Chair: Spiros Gounaris, University of Strathclyde
Session 3.18.9
Customer Loyalty
4

Casino Members/non-Members’ Service Quality Perceptions and their Loyalty – the Case of Mainland Chinese Gamblers

Catherine Prentice, Swinburne University of Technology





The current investigation is undertaken in Macau casinos and explores the relationship between service quality and loyalty of casino members and non-members with a focus on gamblers from the mainland China. The results indicate that service quality explains significant variance in gambler attitudinal loyalty but not behavioral loyalty for casino members and non-members. In particular, service delivery contributes substantially to gambler attitudinal loyalty. Surprisingly, non-members report higher level of service quality perceptions and are more likely to act as referral for the casino and to spread positive word-of-mouth communications; whereas members do appear to patronize the casino more frequently and to play longer in the casino of their first choice during their visit in Macau. Implications of these findings are provided for practitioners and researchers.

Casino Service Quality,Loyalty Program,Membership

Friday, 6 June 2014

09:00-10:30
Social Media
Chair: Peter S. H. Leeflang, University of Groningen
Session 3.19.3.
Determining the Effects of Social Media
1

Explaining Consumer Brand-Related Activities on Social Media: The Role of Self-Determination Theory

Alessandro M. Peluso, University of Salento
Lisette De Vries, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
Simona Romani, Luiss University, Rome, Italy
Peter S. H. Leeflang, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
Alberto Marcati, Luiss University

Consumers often engage in brand-related activities on social media, such as watching brand-related videos, joining brand communities, and writing brand blogs, thus affecting firms’ performances. In three distinct studies, we test an explanatory framework that builds on self-determination theory to identify motives for performing different brand-related activities. Results provide converging evidence that extrinsic motivations drive little engaging activities (e.g., watching brand-related videos), whereas intrinsic motivations primarily drive highly engaging activities (e.g., writing a brand blog). Socialization and personal identity play unique roles in leading people to either collaborate with other users to the content generation process (i.e., contributing) or generate online content by themselves (i.e., creating).

Social Media,Self-Determination Theory,Branding

Friday, 6 June 2014

09:00-10:30
Social Media
Chair: Peter S. H. Leeflang, University of Groningen
Session 3.19.3.
Determining the Effects of Social Media
2

The Effects of Social-Interactive Engagement and Social Identity on Brand Love in Online Network-Based Communities

Maria Vernuccio, Rome "La Sapienza" University
Margherita Pagani, EMLyon Business School
Camilla Barbarossa, LUISS Guido Carli University
Alberto Pastore, Sapienza University of Rome


The aim of this study is to propose a social identity approach to consumer-brand affective relationships in online network-based communities by integrating social identity theory, experiential engagement and brand love literature. Specifically, this study seeks to develop a conceptual model in which social identity (SI) and social-interactive engagement (SIE) influence brand love (BL). We empirically validated the model by conducting a survey (n=387) on the Facebook fan pages of 21 leading brands. The research findings support the hypothesis that social identity positively influences consumer-brand affective relationships in terms of brand love and that social identity mediates the effect of social-interactive engagement on brand love.

Social Identity,Social-Interactive Engagement,Brand Love

Friday, 6 June 2014

09:00-10:30
Social Media
Chair: Peter S. H. Leeflang, University of Groningen
Session 3.19.3.
Determining the Effects of Social Media
3

Effects of Psychological Distance in Brand-Related Social Media Posts on Consumers’ Evaluation and Attitude Formation

Alfred Zerres, University of Amsterdam
Anne-Madeleine Kranzbühler, VU University Amsterdam/Department of Marketing




This study examines the effects of temporal and spatial distance in negative online brand post narratives on consumers’ evaluations of brands. Drawing on construal level theory, the authors demonstrate that low temporal distance (compared to neutral or high temporal distance) in a brand post has a negative effect on consumers’ attitude towards the brand which ultimately results in a decreased purchase intention. However, they do not find this effect for spatial distance. Surprisingly, low spatial distance (compared to neutral or high spatial distance) seems to reduce the consumers’ perceived likelihood of negative experiences with the brand, which in turn ultimately has a positive effect on attitude towards the brand and purchase intention. Implications for companies’ social media management as well as construal level theory are discussed.

Brand Post Narratives,Construal Level Theory,Electronic Word Of Mouth

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Social Media
Chair: Torsten Ringberg, Copenhagen Business School
Session 3.19.4
The Symbolic, Rational and Emotional Processing on Social Media
1

The Impact of Traditional Media on Social Media in the Financial Services Industry

Maximilian Hausmann, Munich Ludwig-Maximilians University





In many studies the impact of social media on various brand, customer and financial performance metrics has been shown. The research question what drives social media chatter and whether a company has a chance to steer chatter is left unexplored so far. Therefore the empirical study at hand explores the relationship between traditional media and social media chatter, and shows that traditional media do have an impact on social media. Moreover it can be stated that especially social news related to corporate social responsibility and not functional news associated with corporate ability influence the valence of social media chatter. This is shown by analysing a unique dataset of five major brands in the financial services industry in the German market.

Social Media,User-Generated Content,Media Coverage

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Social Media
Chair: Torsten Ringberg, Copenhagen Business School
Session 3.19.4
The Symbolic, Rational and Emotional Processing on Social Media
2

Fear of Missing Out: Is Voyeurism Driving Teen Consumption of Social Media?

Leigh Doster, Coventry University





This paper examines the role of voyeurism in motivating teen use of social network sites (SNS). Our aim was to understand the purpose, benefits and importance of teen social monitoring activities in SNS. We found that voyeurism was commonplace, habitual and central to teens’ enjoyment of the medium. It enabled them to clarify their own identities, develop relationships, boost self-esteem and moreover was highly entertaining. SNS have blurred the boundaries between public and private; enabling socially accepted ‘mediated voyeurism’ and reconfiguring social norms around privacy, disclosure and observation of others. We argue that voyeurism is the common strand drawing all of the motivations for using SNS together.

Voyeurism,Teenagers,Facebook

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Social Media
Chair: Torsten Ringberg, Copenhagen Business School
Session 3.19.4
The Symbolic, Rational and Emotional Processing on Social Media
3

An Investigation of How Managers' Mental Models of Business-Consumer Interaction Influence the Implementation and Use of Social Media

Pernille Rydén, Copenhagen Business School
Torsten Ringberg, Copenhagen Business School
Ricky Wilke, Copenhagen Business School



The paper empirically illustrates how mental models influence how managers implement social media in their businesses. We posit that managers’ use of social media is constrained by four mental models of business-consumer interaction and question the rational decision process that often is assumed to play a major part of introducing new technology. Based on twenty interviews with managers we identify four mental models,each of which uniquely influences how managers implement social media within the service and retailing industries.

Mental Models,Social Media,Strategy

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Social Media
Chair: Torsten Ringberg, Copenhagen Business School
Session 3.19.4
The Symbolic, Rational and Emotional Processing on Social Media
4

Controllable Antecedents to Boosting Word-Of-Mouth on Social Media: Empirical Evidence from Twitter

Cheng Wang, Durham University/Business School
Qin Zhang, Newcastle University




This paper examines the burst of word-of-mouth on social media(i.e., eWoM), focusing on the marketing stimuli that are controllable by marketers. Through analysis of text-based user-generated contents on Twitter, we found that nearly half of the eWoM peak occasions were stimulated by four major controllable marketing antecedents, and there were significant variations across sectors. The results suggest that social media is a viable marketing tool, but not for all business sectors, and that celebrity endorsement is a most powerful way to boost WoM marketing on social media.

Social Media Marketing,Controllable Antecedents,Ewom

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Social Media
Chair: Carla Ruiz, University of Valencia
Session 3.19.5
Social Recommendations and Online Decision Making
1

I Hated the Service I Found on Groupon: Should I Hate Groupon Too? Whether Consumer Likes and Complaints about a Service on Social Media Spill over to the Deal Site

Ela Ari, Özyegin University
Koen Pauwels, Özyegin University




Social Media provides consumers with easy tools to express love or hate for brands, including online deal sites (e.g. Groupon). Tracking, understanding and reacting to such social media sentiment plays an important role in managing customer satisfaction and thus long-term profitability. This paper examines the impact of Facebook likes about deals and complaints on revenue performance of an online deal site providing daily discount coupons by third party local businesses. The key findings are that while complaints about merchants do not significantly affect Groupon’s revenue performance, likes about the deals affect revenue performance within 2 days. In contrast, complaints about Groupon itself do hurt revenue performance immediately and within 1 day indicating that negative feedback enter the decision process of prospective customers sooner.

Facebook,Likes,Complaints

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Social Media
Chair: Carla Ruiz, University of Valencia
Session 3.19.5
Social Recommendations and Online Decision Making
2

Personal Inquiry and Social Recommendation: Online Word-of-Mouth Generation for Service Retailers on Daily Deal Sites

Jikyung (jeanne) Kim, IE University
Jeonghye Choi, Yonsei Universityi
Kyung Min Park, Yonsei University



In this study we investigate how product (service) features and terms of transaction affect two very different word-of-mouth (WOM) activities: personal inquiry and social plugin clicks (SPC). Personal inquiry used to be mainly between seller and the buyers in the past, but in the recent years it can be shared by any potential buyers due to technological changes. Thus we consider this an important type of WOM. The empirical setting is a daily deal site where small offline service businesses can readily promote and sell their services in the form of a voucher. We show that the riskiness of the deal discourages social sharing, because the users do not want to bear the social risk of recommending a deal that might not realize or has little value. Meanwhile, high risk factors seem to increase the intrigue of the deal for personal consumption; personal inquiries increase with higher minimum quantity and higher price.

Word-Of-Mouth,Social Networking Site,Social Plugin

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Social Media
Chair: Carla Ruiz, University of Valencia
Session 3.19.5
Social Recommendations and Online Decision Making
3

Expert or Customer? A Multi-Category Investigation of the Impact of Online Review Source on its Effectiveness

Daria Plotkina, EM Strasbourg Business School
Andreas Munzel, Toulouse 1 Capitole University, Center for Research in Management (CRM)




With the growing role of Internet in everyday life and in consumer practices, the impact of online content not generated by marketers has attracted attention from the part of researchers and practitioners. The impact of product and/or services evaluations and experiences—online reviews—on sales, product choice and purchase intention is widely accepted. However, recent studies widely neglect the multiplicity of types of online reviews available on the Internet. In this paper we aim to fill in the literature gap by differentiating online reviews based on its source: expert or customer. We concentrate on the challenging and little studied case of new products. Our results show that online reviews are effective for products that are difficult to assess prior to purchase and expert reviews have a more significant impact in the promotion of these products.

Online Reviews,Expert Reviews,Multi-Category Study

Friday, 6 June 2014

17:00-18:00
Social Media
Chair: Catherine Demangeot, University of Strathclyde
Session 3.19.6
Social Media Uses
1

Knowledge Creation Dynamics In Online Consumer Communities

Catherine Demangeot, University of Strathclyde Business School
Stephen Tagg, University of Strathclyde Business School




Online consumer communities contain vast amounts of consumer knowledge, which, activated by individual needs, becomes a collective good at the disposal of the community. Drawing from literature on communities of practice, this exploratory study identifies different knowledge creation dynamics in online consumer communities. With a sample of 50 complete threads (35,000 words) drawn from an online forum, the study uses a constant comparative approach to identify five forms of knowledge creation dynamics: failed, partial knowledge creation, resolution-tending, deep-bodied knowledge, and broad-ranging knowledge. Some forms are more useful to both the initiator and the community than others. Implications on how consumers may use the different forms of collective knowledge in their individual decision-making, and how marketers can use these findings, are discussed.

Consumer Knowledge,Online Communities,Communities Of Practice

Friday, 6 June 2014

17:00-18:00
Social Media
Chair: Catherine Demangeot, University of Strathclyde
Session 3.19.6
Social Media Uses
3

Linking Personality and Social Media Usage – A Fuzzy Set Approach

Philipp Rauschnabel, University of Bamberg
Alexander Leischnig, Otto-Friedrich-University of Bamberg




The overall purpose of this study is to advance the current social media literature by providing insights into the causal patterns of psychological factors underlying individuals’ social media usage behaviors. Based on trait theory, the authors analyze what constellations of the Big Five personality traits predict social media usage in terms of liking, sharing, and commenting behaviors. This article presents the results of a study with 1285 users of a major online social media platform. The data are analyzed using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The results indicate that there exist multiple personality structures predicting social media usage. These insights help managers define segmentation approaches and develop user management strategies.

Social Media Usage,Personality,Fsqca

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Minoo Farhangmehr, University of Minho
Session 3.20. 9
Product Obsolescence
1

“Fifty Ways to Leave your Cell Phone”: Product Obsolescence, Product Replacement and Product Attachment.

Elisabeth Robinot, University of Savoie
Fabien Durif, École des sciences de la gestion, UQAM
Dominique Kreziak, I.A.E Savoie Mont Blanc -Université de Savoie
Isabelle Prim-Allaz, Université Lyon II


Decreasing life span and accelerated product replacement process for technological products refer to the crucial question of product relative and psychological obsolescence, raising environmental issues. The objective of the research is to explore how product attachment remains or is expressed at the time of the replacement, as product attachment may lead to a longer life span and better care. Results of a qualitative study based on letters to a replaced object reveal that individuals address their cell phone as if it was a person. They use the semantic field of relationship, love, friendship and companionship. Product attachment may have influenced the destiny of the replaced product : replaced yet kept in most cases, thus maintaining a physical proximity but hindering efficient recycling.

Dispositions,Product Attachment,Product Obsolescence

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Minoo Farhangmehr, University of Minho
Session 3.20. 9
Product Obsolescence
2

Honey, we Have to Talk! How Shareholders React to the Design of Product Recall Messages

Raoul Kübler, Özyegin University





Previous research showed that consumers as well as shareholders react negatively to product recalls. Research holds that adapting the recall communication to the recall specific setting helps to minimize negative consumer reactions. However, marketing research has so far not investigated how investors react to the design of the recall message. The present study assembles a unique data set of all German product recalls between 2007 and 2010. Using an event study approach abnormal returns for 60 recalling companies were calculated. Explaining abnormal returns by the design of the recall message, the study delivers important insights for marketers. In contrast to their larger counterparts, smaller companies profit from emphasizing social responsibility and providing strong identification help. Larger companies instead minimize negative shareholder reactions by installing higher degrees of return convenience.

Product-Recall,Event-Study,Latent-Class-Regression

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Minoo Farhangmehr, University of Minho
Session 3.20. 9
Product Obsolescence
3

Proposed Scale to Measure Motivations for Selling Second-Hand Products Online

Fabien Durif, University of Québec in Montréal
Myriam Ertz, University of Quebec at Montreal
Manon Arcand, University of Quebec at Montreal



Many people now use online reselling platforms to harness the power of the Internet to sell used products more efficiently. Little attention has been devoted to product disposal through resale and the limited research in this area has focused primarily on the buyers. In this article, we develop the concept of sellers’ motivations to resell products online through an extensive literature review and develop the first scale to measure the motivations driving online reselling, in accordance with Churchill’s procedure. Toward this end, 477 individuals who had sold second-hand items online in the last year were surveyed. The latent structure was assessed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and a robust, six-factor scale with twenty items is proposed. Applications of this new scale for researchers and managers are discussed.

Second-Hand Products,Reselling Motivations,Measurement Scale

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Alejandro Alvarado Herrera, University of Quintana Roo
Session 3.20.10
Ethics, CSR, and Consumption 1
1

The Facts Panel on Corporate Social and Environmental Behavior (CSEB Facts Panel): A Remedy for Corporate Irresponsibility?

Andreas Plank, Innsbruck University
Karin Teichmann, Innsbruck University




This research focuses on the information asymmetries between producers and consumers with regard to corporate social and environmental behavior. Similar to the Nutrition Facts Panel, the authors propose a facts panel on Corporate Social and Corporate Environmental Behavior (CSEB Facts Panel) and test its effects on consumer response. Based on the results of a qualitative pre-study, findings of an experimental study demonstrate that when the CSEB Facts Panel indicates responsible (vs. irresponsible) corporate behavior, companies can benefit from consumers’ increased willingness to pay a price premium. The authors discuss managerial, public policy, and theoretical implications.

Corporate Behavior,Corporate Irresponsibility,Information Asymmetry

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Alejandro Alvarado Herrera, University of Quintana Roo
Session 3.20.10
Ethics, CSR, and Consumption 1
2

Are Consumption Opponents the Happier People? Insights into the Relationship Between Sustainable-Rooted Anti-Consumption Practices and Personal Well-Being

Barbara Seegebarth, Braunschweig University of Technology
Mathias Peyer, University of Potsdam
Ingo Balderjahn, University of Potsdam
Klaus-Peter Wiedmann, Leibniz University of Hannover


As the prevalence of anti-consumption practices and its relationship to personal well-being have grown, this research focuses on the anti-consumption practices of voluntary simplicity, collaborative consumption and boycotting in the area of sustainability and their contribution to the financial and psychological well-being. Using structural equation modeling, empirical results show a strong relationship between sustainability-rooted anti-consumption habits (SRAC) and personal well-being as well as a positive effect of financial on psychological well-being. Finally, consumer research and managerial implications are considered.

Sustainability,Anti-Consumption,Well-Being

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Alejandro Alvarado Herrera, University of Quintana Roo
Session 3.20.10
Ethics, CSR, and Consumption 1
3

Development of a Measurement Scale of a Consumer’s Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility in Terms of a Sustainability-Centered Rationality (csrconsperscale)

Alejandro Alvarado Herrera, University of Quintana Roo
Joaquin Aldas, University of Valencia
Rafael Curras, University of Valencia



The main objective of this research is to develop and validate a measurement scale of a consumer’s perception of CSR using the sustainable development three-dimensional -economic, social and environmental- conceptual approach as a theoretical basis perspective for its development. Based on the measurement scales creation and validation stages suggested by DeVellis (1991) and improved by Churchill’s (1979) and Bigné et als’ (2002) suggestion, five different empirical studies are developed expressly with application on the tourist services consumer. Results show CSRConsPerScale scale to be a useful, valid and parsimonious instrument. Key implications, limitations and future research are shown.

Scale_development,Cfa,Csr_and_sd

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Alejandro Alvarado Herrera, University of Quintana Roo
Session 3.20.10
Ethics, CSR, and Consumption 1
4

I Am Strong to the Finish Cause I Eats me Spinach! The Impact of Ethical Claims on Consumers’ Judgments and Willingness to Pay for Food & Beverage Products and Services.

Vera Herédia Colaço, New University of Lisbon
Rita Coelho Do Vale, Católica- Lisbon School of Business and Economics




Across two studies (study 1- N=214; study 2-N=104) this article examines the efficiency of ethical advertising claims in promoting food & beverage products/ services that are simple/ sophisticated and for which consumers perceive to exist greater/ lesser fit with sustainability. We test the moderating role of product category and the mediating effect of enjoyment perceptions in this relationship. Results show that when higher/ lower ethical claims are presented, the simpler and natural (sophisticated and exciting) the product/ service is portrayed to be, the greater its enjoyment, and the higher consumers´ willingness to pay in situations that increase healthful (hedonic) goals.

Consumer Behavior,Decision-Making,Ethicality

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Sarah Xiao, Durham University
Session 3.20.11
Ethics, CSR, and Consumption 2
1

Conscientious Consumers: The Relationship Between Political Orientation and Sustainable Consumption

Leah Watkins, University of Otago
Robert Aitken, University of Otago
Damien Mather, University of Otago



Our consumption choices about where to shop and what to buy, articulate something about our political beliefs and how we believe society should function in order to achieve social justice (Jost, 2006). Scholars outside of marketing have conducted notable research employing the left and right political continuum as a basis for predicting individuals’ behaviour (Graham, Haidt, & Nosek, 2009), however, there has been little research focusing on political ideology in marketing (Kidwell, Farmer and Hardesty 2013), and its relationship to the moral foundations underlying everyday consumption decision. This study uses structural equation modelling to demonstrate the relationship between moral foundations, political orientation, sustainable consumption behaviour and political involvement in sustainability issues.

Political-Ideology,Sustainability,Moral-Foundations

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Sarah Xiao, Durham University
Session 3.20.11
Ethics, CSR, and Consumption 2
2

Online Big Brother: Social Media Users’ Privacy Perceptions and their Personal Data Disclosure Strategies

Mihai Orzan, Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies
Iconaru Claudia, Bucharest University of Economic Studies
Macovei Octav-Ionut, Lumina - The University of South East-Europe



As more companies base their marketing strategies on data gathered or acquired from online social networks, our research main focus is to identify how reliable this data might be considered, taking into account users’ behaviour of sharing incomplete or even made up information about themselves. We approach the concept of disclosing personal information on social media websites from two main viewpoints, namely Privacy Calculus Model and Risk/Benefit Ratio. We build a model around this concept trying to determine the determinants of either accurate or inaccurate personal information disclosure online, validated using PLS structural equation modeling.

Social Media,Privacy,User Behavior

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Sarah Xiao, Durham University
Session 3.20.11
Ethics, CSR, and Consumption 2
3

Beyond Helping: The Role of Psychological Distance in Cause-Related Product Buying Decision

Tao Xue, Durham University
Dr. Sarah Xiao




Psychological distance has been established as a key antecedent to social and temporal related decision-making among consumers, along with the presentation of marketing stimuli. While much of these factors studied in the context of social helping and donation are either social psychological distance variables or emotional states of consumers, research has yet to explore the cross-national differences in how social and other dimensions of psychological distance affect social cause-related buying decision. Using data from two countries in Europe and East Asia, we demonstrate that all four dimensions of psychological distance affect consumer cause-related product purchase decisions in different country contexts.

Cause-Related Marketing,Psychological Distance,Cross-National Research

Friday, 6 June 2014

17:00-18:00
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Hayley Cocker, Lancaster University
Session 3.20.12
Ethics and Emotions
1

“Feeling Good Vs. Doing Justice”: How Donation of Time and Money Impact Happiness

Walter Nique, Federal University of Rio Grande Do Sul
Verner Luis Antoni, Universidade de Passo Fundo - UPF
Kenny Basso, Faculdade Meridional - IMED, Passo Fundo



This paper discusses the relationship between donation (donation of time and money) and happiness. Through a survey with a probabilistic sample from a large Brazilian city the authors found that donating both time and money positively influences the happiness of individuals. The “feel good” sense moderates the relationship between donation of time and happiness, such that there is no relationship when the “feel good” sense is low. In addition, when individuals have a better perception that people’s donations are based on “doing justice”, the relationship between material donation and happiness is non-significant.

Happiness,Donation,Motives For Donation

Friday, 6 June 2014

17:00-18:00
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Hayley Cocker, Lancaster University
Session 3.20.12
Ethics and Emotions
2

Marketplace Access As An Individual and Collective Endeavour

Peter Nuttall, Bath University
Julie Tinson, Stirling Management School
Maria Piacentini, Lancaster University / Management SchoolManagement School
Hayley Cocker, Lancaster University / Management SchoolManagement School


Contemporary calls for research suggests exploring how those who are vulnerable can improvise, navigate, solve problems and gain access to consumption related experiences. Through forty in-depth interviews with teenagers we develop an understanding of individual and collective coping strategies employed to facilitate access to a significant adolescent ritual: the high-school prom. Findings suggest that coping strategies in low income communities are both planned and reactive with surrogate access supported by families and the wider community. This develops previous research which suggests that consumer coping is an individuated activity where negative tensions are dealt with by privately internalizing situational effects.

Coping,Vulnerability,Access

Friday, 6 June 2014

17:00-18:00
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Chair: Hayley Cocker, Lancaster University
Session 3.20.12
Ethics and Emotions
3

The Morality of Metaphorically Wrapped Erotic Ad Packages: Scuba Diving Into Consumers’ Cognitive and Ethical Considerations Dependent Upon Their Need to Simplify

Vlasis Stathakopoulos, Athens University of Economics and Business
Ioannis G. Theodorakis, Athens University of Economics and Business
Androniki Katarachia, TEI of Western Macedonia
Efthymia Kottika, Athens University of Economics and Business
Konstantinos Kottikas, Athens University of Economics and Business

Eroticism and metaphor are frequently used in advertising. However, questions remain as to their combined cognitive and ethical effects across metaphorical variants used and dependent upon viewers’ personal need for structure (PNS). Findings from two experiments indicate that only more sophisticated metaphorical erotic ads cognitively outperform plain erotic ones. Additionally, such instances generate significantly less intense ethical reactions. Moreover, consumers’ PNS level is important such that a higher level produces less favorable cognitive and ethical outcomes. Finally, there appear differences between same PNS level consumers when exposed to a non/metaphorical erotic ad in terms of ethical judgments among others.

Metaphorical Erotic Ads,Ethical Judgments,Personal Need For Structure

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Rodney Runyan, Texas State University
Session 3.21.3
Satisfaction and Loyalty
1

Segmentation in the Tourism Sector: Using Satisfaction Prototypes

Lola C. Duque, Carlos III University
Isabel Cortes-Jimenez, AQR-IREA University of Barcelona
Carme Riera-Prunera, University of Barcelona



Market segmentation in tourism has been a central topic of research during decades. A general classification of segmentation is data-driven versus conceptual segmentation. The aim of our study is twofold. First, to test a conceptual segmentation using a criterion that has been outlined by Richard Oliver (1997) to evaluate its applicability to tourism consumption; and second, to assess how a satisfaction model varies among these segments. A survey has been carefully designed to meet the research objectives. The final version of the questionnaire is already finished and we have started to collect data. The model will be estimated performing group analysis with structural equation modelling based on the Partial Least Squares (PLS) algorithm. We expect to find significant differences by segments, so that the relative importance of perceived values for satisfaction varies by segment.

Segmentation,Customer Satisfaction,Perceived Value Scale

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Rodney Runyan, Texas State University
Session 3.21.3
Satisfaction and Loyalty
2

A Relationship Marketing Approach to the Online Purchase of Tourism Products

Hélia Gonçalves Pereira, Lisbon University Institute (ISCTE)
Paulo Rita, Lisbon University Institute (ISCTE)
Maria De Fátima Salgueiro, Lisbon University Institute (ISCTE)



The main goal of this paper is to develop empirical knowledge regarding the evaluation of the most important determinants of a relationship marketing approach to an online context, assuming that in the online context a gap remains in the marketing literature. The proposed model integrates four online determinants of a relationship marketing context and tries to identify their simultaneous influence on satisfaction, trust and loyalty. A questionnaire was applied to loyal customers of online tourism products, resulting in a valid sample of 3188 individuals. The main statistical analyses were conducted within the Structural Equation Modeling framework. The findings indicate that site image and routines associated with site visits are strong determinants of online customer satisfaction and loyalty in tourism and that satisfaction as a strong impact in trust as well trust as in the loyalty of customers.

Loyalty,Relationships,Internet

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Rodney Runyan, Texas State University
Session 3.21.3
Satisfaction and Loyalty
3

An Insight Into City Branding: A Destination Brand Equity Approach

Stella Kladou, Hellenic Open University
John Kehagias, Hellenic Open University
Athina Dilmperi, University of Lincoln - Lincoln Business School



Although the development of the brand equity construct has been based on five dimensions, research on destination brand equity commonly refers to four dimensions; namely awareness, image, quality and loyalty. In order to integrate the fifth dimension, i.e. the brand assets dimension, into the brand equity model, the study focuses on cultural brand assets. The research addressed international tourists visiting three major cultural destinations, namely Athens, Istanbul and Rome. Findings indicate that the five dimensions are important for the customers’ evaluation of a cultural destination. Conclusions imply that the five dimensions model stands in different destinations. The study assists practitioners towards getting a better understanding on which brand elements they should focus, in order to achieve favourable brand evaluations.

Brand Equity Model,Cultural Destinations,Multi-Group Analysis

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Rodney Runyan, Texas State University
Session 3.21.3
Satisfaction and Loyalty
4

The Role of Emotion in Place Attachment

Sheila Malone, Lancaster University / Management School
Nathan Line, Florida State University
Rodney Runyan, Texas State University



The role of place attachment in influencing tourists’ environmental attitudes and pro-environmental behaviour is supported by many. Tourists tend to express stronger emotional attachment towards natural environments; however, our understanding of the affective dimension of place attachment and its implications for tourism practices is limited. This paper investigates the role of emotion as a dimension of place attachment in influencing pro-environmental attitudes and specific tourism choices i.e. nature-based tourism (NBT). We provide empirical evidence using a structural modelling methodology to support the hypothesis that environmental attitudes are positively related to nature-based tourism motivations, and NBT motivations are positively related to place attachment with respect to a tourism destination. Theoretical contributions and managerial implications are discussed

Emotion,Place Affect,Place Attachment

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Marina Sheresheva, Lomonosov Moscow State University
Session 3.21.4
SIG and Niche Marketing
1

Valencia as a Port of Call: Image, Satisfaction and Future Behavioral Intention. The Moderating Effects of Culture

Elena Carvajal-Trujillo, University of Huelva
Silvia Sanz-Blas, University of Valencia




This study aims to analyze the image that Mediterranean cruise ports of call have on passenger satisfaction and, therefore, on future behavioral intentions. The differences on behavior have been analyzed on a cultural basis. This paper conducts an empirical analysis of a conceptual model tested on 492 cruise passengers. Passengers were selected once they had finished their tour around Valencia. Most interviewed passengers came from Germany, United Kingdom, Italy and United States. The results showed that image has a direct influence on satisfaction and satisfaction has a direct effect on future behavioral intention. In addition, the influence on future behavioral intention derived from cruise passenger satisfaction differs from German and Italian to British and American.

Cruiser Behavior,Port Of Call,Culture

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Marina Sheresheva, Lomonosov Moscow State University
Session 3.21.4
SIG and Niche Marketing
2

Cross-Border Tourist Regions: A Perspective on Place Attachment and Consumer Satisfaction

Bruno Sousa, Minho University / School of Economics and Management
Cláudia Simões, Open University Business School
Sérgio Lopes, Polytechnic Institute of Cávado and Ave (IPCA)



This study aims at gaining a deeper understanding of customer profiling and behaviour in cross-border tourism destinations. The study is developed under a niche marketing perspective. Previous studies suggest that cross-border regions are an attractive and desirable idea, yet they require further theoretical and empirical research. It is our view that niche marketing is not confined to the limits of national markets. This study specifies elements influencing customer behaviour, emotions and attitudes (e.g., place attachment, consumer satisfaction and destination loyalty) in the niche context of cross-border tourism destinations. To the endeavour, we take an interdisciplinary perspective bringing together inputs from marketing, tourism and local economics. We propose a research model and suggest implications for future research.

Cross Border Regions,Niche Marketing,Satisfaction

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Marina Sheresheva, Lomonosov Moscow State University
Session 3.21.4
SIG and Niche Marketing
3

Senior Sport Tourism Consumers in Russia

Marina Sheresheva, Lomonosov Moscow State University
Ekaterina Buzulukova, National Research University Higher School of Economics




The purpose of the paper is to identify the main trends in the senior tourism development in Russia. The study presented in the paper examines the key determinants that should be taken into account in senior tourism marketing, as well as the specifics of consumer behavior in the consumption of senior sport tourism on the Russian market. The results could provide understanding current sport travel motivations of Russian seniors.The main conclusion that can be drawn on the basis of desk research is that elderly population can certainly be considered to be a new target audience in the sports tourism sector.

Tourism,Senior,Russia

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Marina Sheresheva, Lomonosov Moscow State University
Session 3.21.4
SIG and Niche Marketing
4

I Feel Attached: Motivation and Tourists’ Emotions as Antecedents of Place Attachment

Girish Prayag, University of Canterbury
Sameer Hosany, Royal Holloway University of London
Isabella Soscia, Skema Business School



Brand attachment remains relatively unexplored in the context of place brands. The main purpose of this study is to test a conceptual model linking two important antecedents of attachment, motivation and emotion, in the context of place brands. Results show that motives such as escape and relaxation, novelty, socialization, self-discovery, and learning are capable of generating both positive and negative emotions. However, only positive tourist emotions predict place attachment.

Attachment,Motivation,Emotion

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Antonio Ladrón de Guevara Martínez, Pompeu Fabra Univ.
Session 3.21.5
Social Media and Online Decision-Making
1

Subjective Norms In E-Tourism Context: A Study of the Impact of Subjective Norms on Intention to Book Online

Alia Besbes, University of Angers
Patrick Légoherel, Universite d'Angers




Subjective norms are considered the most important source of information when a consumer is making a purchasing decision (Lin, 2007). This influence seems to be important in e-tourism context. The aim of this paper is to study the impact of subjective norms on intention to book tourism product online through an online survey. Results show that all hypotheses are validated. Subjective norms present the most influential impact on behavioral intention. Results and contributions are discussed in the last part of this paper.

Subjective Norms,Intention To Book Online,Tourism Product

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Antonio Ladrón de Guevara Martínez, Pompeu Fabra Univ.
Session 3.21.5
Social Media and Online Decision-Making
2

Dimensions of Social Capital for Tourists’ Online Knowledge Sharing: A Comparison Between Tripadvisor & Facebook

Sara Campo, Autonomous University of Madrid
Luisa Andreu, University of Valencia
Shintaro Okazaki, Autonomous University of Madrid



This paper examines tourists’ knowledge sharing behavior in social media. Based on the social capital theory, we aim to identify factors influencing three dimensions of social capital (cognitive, relational and structural dimensions) in two different types of social media (TripAdvisor and Facebook). We propose a structural model that connects main dimensions of social capital with knowledge sharing as an ultimate dependent variable. An empirical survey was conducted in Spain with a general consumer sample. The baseline model was validated with acceptable fit indexes. In terms of multigroup analysis, our results indicate that there are important differences in the hypothesized relationship among the constructs between TripAdvisor and Facebook. In closing, implications are discussed.

Social Capital,Social Media,Knowledge Sharing

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Antonio Ladrón de Guevara Martínez, Pompeu Fabra Univ.
Session 3.21.5
Social Media and Online Decision-Making
3

The Effects of Social Media and Webcare Strategies on Hotel Attitude and Booking Intentions

Ana B. Casado-Diaz, University of Alicante
Luisa Andreu, University of Valencia
Caitlin Anderson, University of North Carolina Wilmington



In order to minimize the effects of NWOM, companies have begun to make their presence known in social media by searching for and responding to comments about their brand in consumer posts through ‘webcare’. The purpose of this paper is to determine if the presence of accommodative or defensive webcare is considered appropriate across two different types of social media - a social networking site and a travel review site. The empirical study is applied to the tourism and hospitality industry. A 2x3 (type of social media x type of managerial response) experimental design is conducted in the context of online hotel reviews. The results suggest that it is better for managers to respond to complaints online, but the type of response varies depending on the social media type.

Online Reviews,Social Media,Hotels

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30-17:00
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Antonio Ladrón de Guevara Martínez, Pompeu Fabra Univ.
Session 3.21.5
Social media and Online Decision-Making
4

The Effect of Negative Popularity on Consumer Preferences

Antonio Ladron De Guevara Martinez, Pompeu Fabra University
Giampaolo Viglia, Pompeu Fabra University
Furlan Roberto, Kantar Health



Consumers post online reviews, affecting the evaluation of products and services. Yet, little is known about the importance of the number of reviews for consumer decision making. We conduct an online experiment (n=168) to assess the impact of the average evaluation, a measure of quality, and the number of reviews, a measure of popularity, on consumer behaviour. Results show that consumer preference increases with the number of reviews, independently of the average evaluation being high or low. This novel result is mediated by demographics: young people, and in particular young males, are less affected by popularity, relying more on quality.

Reviews,Conjoint,Latent-Class

Friday, 6 June 2014

17:00-18:00
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Anna De Visser-Amundson, Hotelschool The Hague
Session 3.21.6
The Hotel Servicescape
1

The Relationship Between Work-Life Balance, Emotional Labor and Affective Commitment – An Empirical Study In The Hotel Industry

Thomas Höge, Innsbruck University
Verena Hofmann, University of Innsbruck, School of Management, Departement of Strategic Management, Marketing and Tourism
Nicola Stokburger-Sauer, University of Innsbruck, School of Management, Departement of Strategic Management, Marketing and Tourism



Although emotional labor and work-life balance gain considerable interest in research and practice, current literature has neglected to investigate their interconnections and influence on employees’ commitment. Referring to emotional labor and work-life balance theories the authors examine the relationship between employees’ work-life balance, emotional labor and affective commitment. Results of an empirical study in the German and Austrian hotel industry indicate that the perception of work-life balance and the emotional interaction autonomy (i.e., employee’s scope of action in the performance of emotion display in service interactions) predict employees’ commitment. This study helps to understand the relevance of employees’ needs for employee retention in the firm. Implications for management and research are discussed.

Service Interactions,Emotional Labor,Affective Commitment

Friday, 6 June 2014

17:00-18:00
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Anna De Visser-Amundson, Hotelschool The Hague
Session 3.21.6
The Hotel Servicescape
2

Information Search Process and Familiarity with a Tourist Destination: Criteria for Designing Hotel Websites

Ruben Huertas-Garcia, Barcelona University
Juan Carlos Gázquez-Abad, University of Almeria
Irene Esteban-Millat, Open University of Catalonia
Francisco J. Martínez-López, University of Granada


The internet has become one of the main channels for the promotion and sale of services related to tourism. As a result, producers and distributors alike are keen to resolve the question as to which factors determine the website choice of internet browsers. In this paper we report an experiment conducted to determine the factors that need to be taken into consideration when designing a website for familiar and unfamiliar tourist destinations. To do so, we design an empirical test that combines an experiment in which consumers differ (between subjects) in the extent of their familiarity with a destination with a conjoint analysis in which respondents consider (within subjects) alternative hotel websites. Our results suggest that a website for familiar destinations tend to be scanned and not analyzed in detail, and consumers tend to use fewer content and presentation elements in their assessment than for an unfamiliar destination. These results run counter to most claims that what matters is a sophisticated web design, but such studies have tended to ignore the type of product or service being promoted and the target group being addre

Website Designs,Hotel Website,Familiarity

Friday, 6 June 2014

17:00-18:00
Tourism Marketing
Chair: Anna De Visser-Amundson, Hotelschool The Hague
Session 3.21.6
The Hotel Servicescape
3

Designed By You: The Effects of Customized Hotel Experiences On Perceived Value and Willingness To Pay

Anna De Visser-Amundson, Hotelschool The Hague
Mirella Kleijnen, VU University Amsterdam
Kobe Millet, VU University Amsterdam



This research explores how hotel companies can offer more personalized and differentiated experiences by implementing modern customization technologies in the pre-purchase phase and through such means significantly increase perceived value and willingness to pay. We specifically consider two methods: a feature selection method versus a so-called matchmaker. We contribute to both experience and customization theories by providing preliminary evidence that regardless of the customization tool consumers are prepared to pay more for such co-created and customized hotel stays. Moreover, we take consumer identity fit into consideration and illustrate the differentiating effect of booking time pressure on the two customization tools on perceived value.

Customization,Experiences,Value

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Nitika Garg, UNSW
Session 3.3. 9A
Emotions and Behaviour
1

The Impact of Chinese Culture and Negative Emotions towards Luxury Consumption: A Study of Chinese Consumers

Juzi Zhou, University of Nottingham Ningbo
Martin J. Liu, Nottingham University Business School China
Ruizhi Yuan, Nottingham University Business School China
Zhenzhi Guan, Nottingham University Business School China
Jun Luo, Nottingham University Business School China

Researchers have been widely focused on the positive emotions that consumers acquire from luxury consumption while the negative emotions emerge from luxury consumption have rarely been studied. Emotions have been proved to be influenced by different culture; however, how specific culture affects specific emotions has drawn sparse attention. This present study investigates how two main Chinese cultures, Collectivism and Guanxi, affect consumers’ negative post purchase emotions, namely, shame and guilt, in the context of luxury consumption. The study also examines how shame and guilt influence repurchase intention of luxury goods differently. Results and implications of this study are further discussed.

Chinese Culture,Guilt,Shame

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Nitika Garg, UNSW
Session 3.3. 9A
Emotions and Behaviour
2

The influence of Ambient Factors in Retail Stores: the Compared Effects of Perceived Colors and Store Layout

Marie-Christine Lichtle, Montpellier I Yniversity
Patrice Cottet, University of Reims
Jean-Marc Ferrandi, LUNAM, ONIRIS, LARGECIA
Véronique Plichon, University of Tours-Orléans (VALLOREM EA 6296, CRESCEM )


This paper aims to compare the effects of a store layout and of the colors perceived by consumers on the emotions felt in a retail outlet and on the satisfaction of the customers. The effect of mood of patrons when entering the store is also checked. The results of an exploratory study show first the influence of the congruence between colors and the store’s image and the effects of store layout on the three emotions studied: oppression, pleasantness and nervousness. Moreover, these independent variables also affect the level of satisfaction.

Ambient Factors,Emotions,Satisfaction

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Nitika Garg, UNSW
Session 3.3. 9A
Emotions and Behaviour
3

Investigating the Effects of Expectations on Disappointment, Regret, and Post-Consumption Behaviors

Muhammad Hossain, Monash University
Harmen Oppewal, Department of Marketing, Monash University, Australia
Dewi Tojib, Department of Marketing, Monash University, Australia



Negative consumption experiences often result in feelings of disappointment and regret. The present research aims to investigate whether expectations induce disappointment and regret differently and how these emotions influence consumers’ post-consumption behaviors. Using a scenario-based experiment in the context of a negative holiday travel experience, we demonstrate that variations in expectations differentially induce feelings of disappointment and types of regret. Consumers first experience disappointment and then regret after going through negative consumption experience, confirming the hierarchical nature of these emotions when influencing post-consumption coping behaviors.

Expectation,Disappointment,Regret

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Nitika Garg, UNSW
Session 3.3. 9A
Emotions and Behaviour
4

Weather, Affect, and Consumption: the Moderating Role of Gender and Product Nature

Vikas Mittal, Rice University
Rahul Govind, UNSW
Nitika Garg, UNSW



While affect has been suggested as the driver of weather-consumption relationship, the when and why of it are not understood. Across four studies, that span national surveys and experimental studies, we not only establish affect as a mediator of weather-consumption relationship but also, that it is moderated by gender. In addition, we find that the nature of product (hedonic vs. utilitarian) affects that mediated relationship at different levels.

Affect,Consumption,Hedonic Products

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Christian J. Wagner, University of Passau
Session 3.3. 9B
Consumers decision in e-commerce environments
1

It’s not all about the Benefits – Cost Perceptions as Additional Drivers of the Zero-Price Effect

Björn Hüttel, University of Passau
Christian J. Wagner, University of Passau
Jan H. Schumann, University of Passau



When faced with a choice of selecting between free and priced products, consumers attribute additional benefit to the free product and show an irrationally high shift in demand for the free product (zero-price-effect). In this research, we apply the zero-price-effect to free e-services which incorporate non-monetary costs e.g. customers’ attention to advertising. Results show that consumers underestimate these non-monetary costs for the free-offer, such that not only the benefits of the zero priced good increase but at the same time the non-monetary costs of the low-value good decrease. Thus in addition to the benefits, the consideration of non-monetary costs serves as an extra variable for explaining the zero-price effect.

Zero-Price-Effect,Non-Monetary Value Contributions,Free-Services

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Christian J. Wagner, University of Passau
Session 3.3. 9B
Consumers decision in e-commerce environments
2

Click, Buy, Return – Using Clickstream Data to Uncover Behavioral Patterns in E-Commerce Product Returns

Marius Rosenberg, RWTH Aachen University
Malte Brettel, RWTH Aachen University / Center of Entrepreneurship




Can we predict product return behavior from online shopping behavior? Prior studies have used clickstream data to analyze online shopping behavior and its impact on purchase decisions. This exploratory study extends this notion to product returns. We analyze clickstream data, purchase and return information from a major European e-tailer for fashion goods and apply two-step cluster analysis and multiple stepwise discriminant analysis to assess the relationship between shopping and return behavior. Results confirm four segments: “browser” and “hunter” with significantly lower product return rates as well as “gatherer” and “dreamer” with significantly higher product return rates than the average customer.

Clickstream,Product-Returns,E-Commerce

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Christian J. Wagner, University of Passau
Session 3.3. 9B
Consumers decision in e-commerce environments
3

The Impact of Personalization Design and Compatibility of Past Experience on E-Banking Usage

May Wang, Division of Business and Management United International College (UIC) Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University, China
Luther Trey Denton, Georgia Southern University
Stella Cho, United International College



Banks and financial services providers are increasingly delivering their services via electronic banking, also known as e-banking. Yet even though this type of delivery is now common, the degree of personalization in the services provided via this channel exhibit considerable variation. This study examines the impact of service personalization on consumer reaction to the banking product. Based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model, this study further examines one contingent factor, compatibility with previous experience with e-banking. Data drawn from a sample of 181 banking customers in a metropolitan region in southern China indicate that personalization leads to increased performance expectancy and decreased effort expectancy. In addition, compatibility with previous e-banking experience produces an interaction effect on both performance expectancy and effort expectancy.

E-Banking,Personalization,Compatibility

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Christian J. Wagner, University of Passau
Session 3.3. 9B
Consumers decision in e-commerce environments
4

A Negation Bias in Word of Mouth

Peeter Verlegh, University of Amsterdam
Camiel Beukeboom, Vrije University
Christian Burgers, Vrije University



We find that consumers use more negations (e.g., "not fast" instead of "slow") in word-of-mouth describing experiences that are incongruent with brand image, such as slow service at a high-end hotel. This use of negations implicitly communicates the brand’s reputation, and influences the audience’ responses to word-of-mouth. Experiment 1 shows that consumers are more likely to use negations when describing unexpected (versus expected) experiences. Experiment 2 shows that the audience rates an experience as unexpected and surprising when another consumer uses negations. Experiment 3 shows that negations affect the evaluation of products reviewed by other consumers.

Word Of Mouth,Language,Online Reviews

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Natalie Truong, Norwegian School of Economics
Session 3.3.10A
The relevance of information
1

When Waiting Time Requires Manager Attention: A Field Study in the Restaurant Industry

Dennis Von Bergh, Open University of The Netherlands
Paul Ghijsen, Open University of The Netherlands
Kees Gelderman, Open University of The Netherlands
Ron Tuninga, Open University of The Netherlands


Past research demonstrated that waiting time satisfaction has a positive effect on service evaluation. However, where many services consist of multiple stages, few studies consider an evaluation of waiting in stages. This research explores the relative importance of waits before, during, and following the actual service delivery in the restaurant industry. Our results indicate that the service-entry wait is the most important wait in the traditional restaurant and the gourmet restaurant. In contrast, in the fast-food restaurant the in-service wait is the predominant wait. The customers’ regulatory focus and fit may explain these findings and suggest that the multi-stage approach is a fruitful avenue for future research into waiting for service.

Waiting,Satisfaction,Loyalty

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Natalie Truong, Norwegian School of Economics
Session 3.3.10A
The relevance of information
2

Antecedents and Consequences of Perceived Investment Value

Heikki Karjaluoto, University of Jyvaskyla
Pekka Puustinen, University of Tampere




To gain a more comprehensive view to non-institutional investment behavior, this study develops and tests a set of hypotheses linking self-congruence, risk profile and investment experience with perceived investment value (PIV). In addition, the study tests direct and indirect effects of PIV on positive word-of-mouth. The hypotheses are tested on data from 440 private investors. The findings reveal that 1) self-congruence and risk profile are positively associated with five out of six of the PIV dimensions, 2) the relationship between PIV and word-of-mouth are more complex than is generally thought, and 3) user experience moderates four out of the twelve hypothesized paths. The study contributes to our understanding of the antecedents and consequences of PIV.

Investments,Risk Profile,Word-Of-Mouth

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Natalie Truong, Norwegian School of Economics
Session 3.3.10A
The relevance of information
3

The Influence of Product information on Status Consumption: The Mediating Role of Perceived Awareness of Others

Reza Movarrei, Grenoble Ecole de Management
Olivier Trendel, Grenoble Ecole de Management
Saeedeh Rezaee Vessal, UPMF, Grenoble



For status conveying goods conspicuously consumed, perceived awareness of others about a product should play a key role in the purchase process. In 3 experiments we show that providing more information about a product actually boosts consumers' own awareness about the product but also the perceived awareness of others. As a consequence, consumers who were given more information about a product had a higher willingness-to-pay and purchase-intention. We also established the moderating role of information type (awareness-facilitating vs. not) and we ruled out the potential impact of cognitive load as an alternative explanation. Implications in advertising, store layout and online retailing for status-conveying products are discussed.

Product Information,Perceived Awareness,Willingness To Pay

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Natalie Truong, Norwegian School of Economics
Session 3.3.10A
The relevance of information
4

From Services to Product: Free-Riding on the Spillover Effects? A Study in the Telecommunication Context.

Van Thao Nguyen Truong, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration





The current research examines spillover effects from services to product with branded element. Results from a study among 136 participants have shown that customers’ attitudes towards services of a brand influence their evaluations of a new product with the same brand. Contrary to the author’s expectations, the spillover is not sensitive to ambiguity, i.e. there is no differential effect when the information about the new product is clear or ambiguous. In addition, the effect of customers’ most recent encounter with the brand’s touch-point is evident, in which when this experience is incongruent with their existing perceptions, customers tend to engage in conscious and deliberate information processing, and are less vulnerable to the unconscious spillover process.

Spillover Effect,Ambiguity,Branded Element

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Sylvia Von Wallpach, Innsbruck University
Session 3.3.10B
Consumer's age effects
1

Towards a Behavioral Vaccine: Exposure to Accessible Temptation When Self-Regulation Is Endorsed Enhances Future Resistance to Similar Temptations in Children

Cara De Boer, European School of Management and Technology
Denise De Ridder, Utrecht University
Emely De Vet, VU University
Aiste Grubliauskiene, Ku Leuven
Siegfried Dewitte, KU Leuven

Restricting access to temptation is a popular way to counter the obesity epidemic in children. As restrictions cannot be widely applied and may have adverse long-term effects, we examine if exposure to accessible temptations while supporting self-regulation trains self-regulation. Study one manipulated self-regulation endorsement in the presence of accessible temptation and assessed subsequent consumption. Study two also manipulated temptation strength of the accessible temptation and assessed consumption motivation. The findings suggest that exposure to temptation in a situation that endorses self-regulation improves self-regulation skills in girls, but not boys and might be a productive long-term strategy improve self-regulatory skills.

Children,Self-Regulation,Restriction Goal

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Sylvia Von Wallpach, Innsbruck University
Session 3.3.10B
Consumer's age effects
2

Making Sense of Multiplicity: Examining Young Consumers’ Emic Constructions of the Self

Hayley Cocker, Lancaster University
Maria Piacentini, Lancaster University / Management School
Emma Banister, Manchester Business School



While there has been enduring interest in the topic of multiple selves in consumer research, the literature has paid little attention to multiple selves in a youth context. This study seeks to address this gap by examining multiplicity in young consumers’ selves. Findings from a multi-method study conducted with British youths aged between 16 and 18 reveal six different ways in which young consumers make sense of multiplicity in the self. While the first three approaches (connecting, combining and integrating selves) encourage centralizing movements within the self, the latter three approaches (normalizing, demarcating and disconnecting selves) encourage decentralizing movements. This study contributes to the existing literature on multiple selves by offering detailed insights into the structure of multiple selves in youth.

Youth,Multiple Selves,Visual Research Methods

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Sylvia Von Wallpach, Innsbruck University
Session 3.3.10B
Consumer's age effects
4

Luxury Experiences over the Life Course: Insights into Generation Y

Sylvia Von Wallpach, Innsbruck University
Martina Bauer, Innsbruck University
Andrea Hemetsberger, Innsbruck University
Ingrid Probst, Innsbruck University
Katharina Auer-Srnka, University of Salzburg

This study adopts a life course perspective to broaden our current understanding of the complex nature of consumer luxury experiences. Narrative biographical interviews with members of Generation Y elicit how luxury experiences over the life course relate to significant individual life events and illuminate how the macro- and micro-environment bring about changes in Generation Y’s luxury experiences. Essentially, luxury experiences relate to changes in the technological, social, economic, cultural, and individual environment. Our findings have important implications for luxury brand managers targeting Generation Y consumers.

Life Course,Luxury Experience,Generation Y

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30- 17.00
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Madhurima Deb, Indian Institute of Management Kashipur
Session 3.3.11A
Commitment and Empowerment
1

Impact of Customer’s Religious Commitment & Self-Image Congruity on Store Level Commitment

Madhurima Deb, Indian Institute of Management Kashipur
Paromita Goswami, Shiv Nadar University




The present study makes an attempt to explore the impact of religion on customer’s store level commitment. In this study an integrated model is proposed which studies the impact of religiosity, self-image congruence on store level commitment. Data is collected using structured questionnaires and scenarios. Quantitative data analysis technique was employed. Results of the study indicate that consumer religious commitment significantly influences store loyalty. Furthermore results also indicate that self-image congruence (self & retail store) affects customers' satisfaction levels and store level loyalty. Overall, this research advances the understanding of customers’ store level loyalty by offering important managerial implications.

Religious Commitment,Self-Image Congruity,Store Level Commitment

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30- 17.00
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Madhurima Deb, Indian Institute of Management Kashipur
Session 3.3.11A
Commitment and Empowerment
2

Segmentation of Loyal Consumers in Retailing Context from the Latent Approach

Maria Fuentes Blasco, University Pablo de Olavide
Beatriz Moliner Velázquez, University of Valencia
Irene Gil Saura, University of Valencia



The identification of retail consumer profiles is key for designing actions oriented towards the most profitable segments. Study of market heterogeneity is evolving towards latent segmentation methodology. Our proposal is to analyse the capacity of satisfaction, commitment and offline and online word-of-mouth as segmentation criteria to identify heterogeneous groups of consumers. A random sample of 785 shoppers in four sectors of retail activity provides 5 statistically different segments with different socio-demographic profiles. These results provide important managerial implications and future lines of research

Satisfaction,Commitment & Wom,Latent Segmentation

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30- 17.00
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Madhurima Deb, Indian Institute of Management Kashipur
Session 3.3.11A
Commitment and Empowerment
3

Sharing Viral Messages to Satisfy Human Needs: Explaining Viral Message Forwarding Using Self Determination Theory

Verena Schoenmueller, University of Basel
Kristine Fritz, University of Basel
Manfred Bruhn, University of Basel



The present paper aims at investigating the question of what drives individuals to share viral messages. Building on Self Determination Theory, we examine the impact of the individual’s need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness on forwarding intention. The results of our empirical study (n = 1,261) demonstrate that autonomy, competence and relatedness affect the intention to forward a viral message. The analysis of detailed forward behavior show that message forwarding to a rather uncontrollable audience is more strongly determined by the need for autonomy and relatedness, whereas message forwarding to a preselected group of people is rather determined by the need for competence.

Sharing,Needs,Self Determination Theory

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30- 17.00
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Madhurima Deb, Indian Institute of Management Kashipur
Session 3.3.11A
Commitment and Empowerment
4

When does Customer Empowerment Make a Difference? An Exploration of Consumer Response to Different Types of Empowerment Campaign Announcements

Xiaohan Wen, Koc University
S. Sinem Atakan, Ozyegin University




Previous research indicates that customer empowerment, the integration of consumers into the decision-making mechanisms of a company, enhances consumers’ perceptions of the company. Three experiments reveal that this effect exists even when consumers are merely exposed to the empowerment campaign announcement. Moreover, the effect is stronger when companies use customer empowerment to design new products rather than to create slogans for the company, for specific product categories where empowerment campaigns are perceived to be new, and when the final consumption is less personally relevant for consumers. The results provide concrete advices for marketing practitioners on customer empowerment campaign planning.

Customer Empowerment,Perceived Customer Orientation,Advertising

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30- 17.00
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Liesbet Van Den Driessche, Ghent University
Session 3.3.11B
Consumer hedonism and curiosity
1

The Role of I and D-Curiosity to Start Smoking and its Consequences

Liesbet Van Den Driessche, Ghent University
Iris Vermeir, University Ghent
Mario Pandelaere, University Ghent



Curiosity plays an important role in smoking initiation. The present paper demonstrates that individuals can be I-curious (interest-driven) to start smoking and/or D-curious (deprivation-driven) to start smoking (study 1). We demonstrate that scoring high on D-curiosity to start smoking is associated with more regret for smoking initiation, and with more motivation for smoking cessation in comparison with I-curiosity to start smoking (study 1). Study 2 shows the underlying process behind these main effects. We provide evidence for a serial mediation model in which we find that D-curiosity smokers elaborate more on their decision to smoke, which leads to more regret, which in turn leads to a higher motivation for smoking cessation. Finally, study 3 shows that anti-tobacco campaigns are only effective for individuals who score high on D-curiosity to start smoking.

Curiosity,Smoking,Anti Tobacco Advertisements

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30- 17.00
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Liesbet Van Den Driessche, Ghent University
Session 3.3.11B
Consumer hedonism and curiosity
2

Third Party Reviews, Hedonic Evaluation and Price Premium. Are All Consumers Alike?

Santiago Gonzalez-Hernando, University of Oviedo
Víctor Iglesias-Argüelles, University of Oviedo
Celina González-Mieres, University of Oviedo



We analyse the different effects that TPRs have on consumers’ hedonic evaluation of wines and the willingness to pay a higher price above their common price range. Through a wine tasting between-subjects experiment, we show that TPRs have a positive and direct influence both on hedonic evaluations and price premium, and that this effect is stronger in variety seekers and less involved wine purchasers.

Tpr,Hedonic Evaluations,Price Premium

Friday, 6 June 2014

15:30- 17.00
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Liesbet Van Den Driessche, Ghent University
Session 3.3.11B
Consumer hedonism and curiosity
3

The Weight of Product Attributes on Longitudinal Satisfaction for New and Long-Term Consumers

Ying Yu, Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Fengjie Jing, East China University of Science and Technology
Bang Nguyen, East China University of Science and Technology
Junsong Chen, East China University of Science and Technology
Cheng-Hao Steve Chen, Oxford Brookes University

Research on longitudinal satisfaction demonstrates that the weight of product attributes on satisfaction shift over time. However, existing literature lacks an understanding of the intervening mechanism. Inspired by hedonic adaptation theory, this research argues that the shifts depend on the attributes’ variability. Then, it posits that hedonic adaptation mediates the attributes’ weights and longitudinal satisfaction. Finally, the research incorporates consumer intentions into the antecedents of longitudinal satisfaction. Findings suggest that hedonic adaptation occurs during the process of ownership, revealing that attribute variability and consumption behavior sustain long-term satisfaction. This confirms the mediating effects of hedonic adaptation on the relationship above.

Hedonic Adaptation,Longitudinal Satisfaction,Product Attribute

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Consumer Behaviour
Chair: Liesbet Van Den Driessche, Ghent University
Session 3.3.11B
consumer hedonism and curiosity
4

Should Charities Touch the Heart or the Mind? The Impact of People’s Self-Monitoring

Tine Faseur, KULeuven
Leen Adams, KULeuven




This research extents our understanding of the relationship between self-monitoring and the effectiveness of emotional versus informational advertisements. More specifically, this relationship is investigated in a charity context. The results of two experimental studies in which the emotional and rational content of advertisements is manipulated show that for low self-monitors, both emotional and rational arguments are seen as valuable information and can be effective, irrespective of their degree and type of involvement. High self-monitors rely largely on the emotional content of the ad, especially under low and high emotional involvement. When high self-monitors are high rationally involved, purely rational or emotional ads can be effective, but the combination of high emotionality and high rationality leads to a decrease in ad effectiveness.

Self-Monitoring,Emotional And Rational Advertising,Involvement

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Marketing in Emerging and Transition Economies
Chair: Nora Lado, Carlos III University
Session 3.7.1
Branding Issues in Emerging and Transition Economies
1

How Emerging Market Investor Value Competitors’ Brand: A Study on the Spillover of Brand Crisis in China’s Financial Market

Peng Zou, Harbin Institute of Technology





Brand crisis not only damages affected brand, but it also may spill over to non-affected competitors when they are perceived as guilty by association. However, little is understood about the financial costs of the competitors associated with the spillover effect. We investigated the spillover effect of brand crisis on non-affected competing firms’ financial values in emerging markets. We investigate how the stock values of rival firms within the same product category were affected by negative publicity released in China regarding food brands. Our results show that rival firms reported negative abnormal returns at the time of the brand crisis; the spillover effect of a brand crisis in a financial market is strengthened by advertising expenditures of rival firms but weakened by corporate social responsibility and product diversity of rival firms.

Brand Crisis,Spillover Effect,Financial Market Value

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Marketing in Emerging and Transition Economies
Chair: Nora Lado, Carlos III University
Session 3.7.1
Branding Issues in Emerging and Transition Economies
2

Evaluation of Products In A Co-Branding Alliance

Rafaela Cordeiro, ESPM
Mateus Ponchio, ESPM




This work seeks to identify whether the evaluation of notebooks improves when there is a co-branding alliance with a strong brand and if there is any difference in the evaluation as a function of the social and economic stratum to which the consumer belongs. Three between and within-subject type experiments were carried out with 865 Brazilian undergraduate students. It was found that notebooks, both of well-known and lesser-known brands, are better evaluated when they are in a co-branding alliance. No evidence was found to support the idea that there is a difference in the assessment of respondents regarding their socio-economic class.

Co-Branding,Consumer Behavior,Emerging Markets

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Marketing in Emerging and Transition Economies
Chair: Nora Lado, Carlos III University
Session 3.7.1
Branding Issues in Emerging and Transition Economies
3

Understanding Patterns of Brand Share Growth and Decline in Emerging Markets

Jenni Romaniuk, University of South Australia
John Dawes, Ehrenberg-Bass Institute
Magda Nenycz-Thiel, Ehrenberg-Bass Institute
Robert East, Kingston University


This paper examines the patterns of market share change across two packaged goods categories in three emerging markets (China, Indonesia and Malaysia). Specifically, we examine the importance of Penetration, Purchase frequency (PF) or Share of Category Requirements (SCR) to changes in market share. Results across categories reveal that market share change is accompanied by greater changes in penetration than in other metrics, both in terms or growth and decline, largely irrespective of category or country. The relative importance of loyalty metrics varied across market share type and category. The results have implications for strategies likely to stimulate brand growth or arrest decline.

Brand Growth,Emerging Markets,Packaged Goods

Friday, 6 June 2014

9:00-10:30
Marketing in Emerging and Transition Economies
Chair: Nora Lado, Carlos III University
Session 3.7.1
Branding Issues in Emerging and Transition Economies
4

Customer-Centricity in Emerging Markets: 4a'S and Value Co-Creation

Lisa Abendroth, University of st. Thomas
Jaqueline Pels, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella




Success cases in emerging markets show firms that have adopted a customer-centric approach, embracing local differences and co-creating solutions with local actors. Meanwhile, failures often involve firms overlooking one of the 4A outcomes that customer’s value (acceptability, affordability, accessibility, and awareness). In this paper, we integrate diverse literatures related to the 4A’s, market separations, and value co-creation into a conceptual framework. This framework allows firms to assess the existing context so as to identify market resource gaps and provides guidelines for developing co-created market solutions, ultimately resulting in financial success and social value.

4a'S Framework,Customer-Centricity,Value Co-Creation

Friday, 6 June 2014

11:00-12:30
Marketing in Emerging and Transition Economies
Chair: Jaqueline Pels, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella
Session 3.7.2
International Marketing in Emerging and Transition Economies
1

Customer Perceptions of Service Recovery Fairness: An Empirical Investigation in the Thai Hotel Sector

Stavros Kalafatis,